The interactions between soybean trypsin inhibitor and delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis in Helicoverpa armigera larva.J Invertebr Pathol. 2000 May; 75(4):259-66.JI
No significant difference in larval mortality was observed when a sublethal dose of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) var. kurstaki HD-1 crystal was supplemented with soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) in the artificial diet fed to Helicoverpa armigera in the laboratory, but supplementing a nonlethal dose of crystal with STI in the diet led to a pronounced reduction of larval growth. This concentration of crystal and two lower concentrations of STI alone had no significant effects on larval growth. The results of substrate-gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the proteases in the H. armigera midgut fluid responsible for the degradation of protoxin consisted of at least four proteases with molecular weights of 71, 49, 36, and 30 kDa. All four proteases could utilize casein also as the substrate. When larvae were fed with STI or Bt + STI, the proteolytic activities of the 49-kDa enzyme disappeared, and the activities of the other three enzymes were reduced. Enzyme assays also indicated that feeding larvae with diets containing Bt, STI, or Bt + STI significantly decreased the specific activities of larval general proteases and the trypsin-like enzyme. The protein concentration of midgut fluid was elevated, especially in the larvae fed on the diets containing STI and Bt + STI. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that the degradation of protoxin and toxin could be inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitors, but when the incubation time was prolonged, the protoxin could be degraded completely, while the degradation of toxin was inhibited further. This suggested that the retention time of toxins in the larval midgut was extended and synergism between insecticidal crystal protein and soybean trypsin inhibitor occurred, which showed as the inhibition of H. armigera larval growth.