Nasal interleukin-5, immunoglobulin E, eosinophilic cationic protein, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and nasal polyposis.Laryngoscope. 2000 Jun; 110(6):1056-62.L
To compare concentrations of interleukin-5 (IL-5), immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in nasal secretion and serum of patients with chronic nonallergic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and nonallergic nasal polyposis to obtain information about the pathogenesis of these diseases.
Nasal secretion and serum were analyzed by routine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques. Nineteen patients with chronic nonallergic sinusitis, 24 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis, and 18 patients with nonallergic nasal polyposis were included in the study. Eight healthy, nonallergic probands served as control subjects.
Significantly elevated concentrations of IL-5 (5-fold, P < .05) and IgE (15-fold, P < .01) were detected in nasal secretion of patients with allergic rhinitis (IL-5, 51.8 +/- 13.2 pg/mL; IgE, 41.9 +/- 20.9 kU/L) or nonallergic nasal polyposis (IL-5, 57.9 +/- 36.9 pg(mL; IgE, 40.5 +/- 20.2 kU/L) compared with controls (IL-5, 10.6 +/- 7.8 pg/mL; IgE, 2.8 +/- 0.5 kU/L) or with patients with chronic nonallergic sinusitis (IL-5, 16.5 +/- 13.2 pg/mL; IgE, 5.4 +/- 3.1 kU/L). There were no significant differences between patients with allergic rhinitis and those with nonallergic nasal polyposis. Concentrations of ECP were significantly elevated (sixfold, P < .01) in patients with allergic rhinitis (297.8 ng/mL +/- 173.1) compared with controls (52.4 +/- 28.0 ng/mL) or patients with chronic nonallergic sinusitis (44.8 +/- 40.1 ng/mL), whereas twofold higher concentrations (not significant) of ECP were observed in patients with nonallergic nasal polyposis (107.1 +/- 26.6 ng/mL). Significantly elevated concentrations of sICAM-1 in nasal secretion (threefold, P < .05) were detected only in patients with chronic nonallergic sinusitis (79.4 +/- 45.6 ng/mL). The elevated sICAM-1 nasal secretion values in this group correlated significantly (P < .05) to the serum values.
Equally elevated concentrations of IL-5 and IgE in patients with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic nasal polyposis implicated similar pathogenic processes in both diseases. Whereas the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis is IgE-specific, the pathogenesis of nasal polyps is not as clear. IL-5 was suggested to play a pivotal role in tissue eosinophilia, which was confirmed by data in the present study. Elevated concentrations of ECP were suggested to result from tissue eosinophilia--a characteristic of both diseases. Elevated concentrations of sICAM-1 in patients with chronic nonallergic sinusitis pointed to its key role in the recruitment of neutrophils into the inflamed tissue, whereas an important role in eosinophil recruitment was ruled out.