Resolving phylogeny at the family level by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences: phylogeny of carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae).Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2000 Jun; 15(3):390-402.MP
We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) using 2094 bp of their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II and tRNA leucine gene sequences. Shorter fragments of this gene region previously have been used to establish generic relationships in insects. In this study, they provided more than sufficient resolution, although the third positions of the protein-coding sequences reached saturation for the deeper divergences. This first published phylogeny for the Silphidae comprises 23 species from 13 genera sampled across the geographic range of the family. In addition, we included species from three related families as outgroups. One of these families, the Agyrtidae, was, until recently, included in the Silphidae, but its resolution here justifies its current position as a separate family. The silphid subfamilies Nicrophorinae and Silphinae are monophyletic in all analyses. All genera for which several species were sampled are supported as monophyletic groups, with the exception of the genus Silpha. European and North American representatives of two Nicrophorus species described from both continents are supported as each others' closest relatives. The lineage that colonized Gondwanaland and that most likely originated in the Palearctic is the most basal within the Silphinae.