Association of CTLA-4 gene A/G polymorphism in Japanese type 1 diabetic patients with younger age of onset and autoimmune thyroid disease.Diabetes Care 2000; 23(7):975-8DC
We studied the association between type 1 diabetes with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and A/G allele polymorphism in exon 1 of the CTLA-4 gene in a Japanese population.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We studied 74 Japanese type 1 diabetic patients with or without AITD and 107 normal subjects to identify the association between CTLA-4 polymorphism and type 1 diabetes using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
The frequency of the CTLA-4 G allele differed significantly between the type 1 diabetic patients (61%) and the normal control subjects (48%) (P = 0.016). The difference in the CTLA-4 G allele became greater between patients with a younger age of onset of type 1 diabetes (age at onset <30 years) and the normal control subjects (64% and 48%, respectively). However, the frequency of the CTLA-4 G allele did not differ between type 1 diabetic patients with younger and older age of onset (64% vs. 57%). The G allele frequencies in the patients with younger-onset type 1 diabetes and AITD increased more than in the control patients (P = 0.025). These differences reflected a significant increase in the frequency of G/G genotype--that is, 54% in those with younger-onset type 1 diabetes and AITD, 39% in those without AITD, and 28% in control subjects.
An association was detected between the CTLA-4 gene polymorphism and younger-onset type 1 diabetes with AITD. The G variant was suggested to be genetically linked to AITD-associated type 1 diabetes of younger onset in this apanese population. The defect in these patients presumably lies in a T-cell-mediated autoimmune mechanism.