NF- kappa B independent suppression of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene expression by inhibition of flavin binding proteins and superoxide production.J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 Aug; 32(8):1499-508.JM
Oxidation-reduction (redox) coupled mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of cell surface adhesion molecule expression. In endothelial cells membrane-bound NADH/NADPH oxidase is a significant source of intracellular superoxide (O(2)(-)) production. We explored the role of flavin containing proteins such as NADH/NADPH oxidase in the induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene expression in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Treatment of HAECs by tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF- alpha, 100 U/ml) for 1 h induced a 31% increase in O(2)(-)production within 5 min as determined by lucigenin chemiluminescence analysis of whole cells (n=4, P<0.05). Pretreatment with the NADH/NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI, 40 microm) for 1 h inhibited O(2)(-)production. DPI also inhibited TNF and LPS-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 cell surface expression and TNF- alpha, LPS, or IL-1 beta induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA accumulation. However, DPI did not inhibit TNF- alpha -induced activation of nuclear NF- kappa B-like binding activity in HAECs and HMECs. Furthermore, DPI did not inhibit TNF- alpha induced transactivation of NF- kappa B-driven VCAM-1 and HIV-LTR promoter gene constructs in transiently transfected HMECs. These data suggest that flavin binding proteins such as NADH/NADPH oxidase can regulate VCAM-1 gene expression independent of NF- kappa B. Furthermore, intracellular O(2)(-)generation is not necessary for NF- kappa B activation or for transactivation of NF- kappa B driven promoters.