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Ropinirole for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson's disease.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Long-term levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease is complicated by the development of motor fluctuations and abnormal involuntary movements. One approach is to add a dopamine agonist at this stage of the disease to reduce the time the patient spends immobile or off and to reduce the dose of levodopa in the hope of reducing such problems in the future.

OBJECTIVES

To compare the efficacy and safety of adjuvant ropinirole therapy versus placebo in patients with Parkinson's disease already established on levodopa therapy and suffering from motor complications.

SEARCH STRATEGY

Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Handsearching of the neurology literature as part of the Cochrane Movement Disorders Group's strategy. Examination of the reference lists of identified studies and other reviews. Contact with SmithKline Beecham.

SELECTION CRITERIA

Randomised controlled trials of ropinirole versus placebo in patients with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and long-term complications of levodopa therapy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Data was abstracted independently by the authors and differences settled by discussion. The outcome measures used included Parkinson's disease rating scales, levodopa dosage, 'off' time measurements and the frequency of withdrawals and adverse events.

MAIN RESULTS

Three double-blind, parallel group, randomised, controlled trials have been conducted on 263 patients. The two phase II studies were relatively small, were conducted over the short term (12 weeks), and used relatively low doses of ropinirole. The other phase III study was medium term (26 weeks) and used ropinirole doses in line with the current UK licensed maximum. Additional data from the manufacturer showed that the difference in the reduction in off time was non-significantly greater with ropinirole than placebo (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.19 hours; -0.63, 1.00 95% CI). As an adverse event, dyskinesia was significantly increased in those who received ropinirole (odds ratio [OR] 2.59; 1.35, 4.96 95% CI; p < 0.004). Measurements of motor impairments and disability were poor in these studies with incomplete information available. Levodopa dose could be reduced in two studies with a significantly larger reduction on ropinirole than on placebo (WMD 136.5mg/d; 74.5, 198.6 95% CI; p =0.00002). No significant differences in the frequency of adverse event reports were noted between ropinirole and placebo apart from the increase in dyskinesia with ropinirole. There was a trend towards fewer withdrawals from ropinirole but this did not reach statistical significance.

REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS

Ropinirole therapy can reduce levodopa dose but at the expense of increased dyskinetic adverse events. No significant effect on off time reduction was found but this may have been due to under-powered trials and the low doses of ropinirole used in the phase II studies. Inadequate data on motor impairments and disability was collected to assess these outcomes. These conclusions apply to short and medium term treatment, up to 26 weeks. Further longer term trials are required, with measurements of effectiveness, and also studies to compare the newer with the older dopamine agonists.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10908503

Citation

Clarke, C E., and K H. Deane. "Ropinirole for Levodopa-induced Complications in Parkinson's Disease." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2000, p. CD001516.
Clarke CE, Deane KH. Ropinirole for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000.
Clarke, C. E., & Deane, K. H. (2000). Ropinirole for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson's disease. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD001516.
Clarke CE, Deane KH. Ropinirole for Levodopa-induced Complications in Parkinson's Disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(3)CD001516. PubMed PMID: 10908503.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ropinirole for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson's disease. AU - Clarke,C E, AU - Deane,K H, PY - 2000/7/25/pubmed PY - 2001/7/6/medline PY - 2000/7/25/entrez SP - CD001516 EP - CD001516 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Long-term levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease is complicated by the development of motor fluctuations and abnormal involuntary movements. One approach is to add a dopamine agonist at this stage of the disease to reduce the time the patient spends immobile or off and to reduce the dose of levodopa in the hope of reducing such problems in the future. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of adjuvant ropinirole therapy versus placebo in patients with Parkinson's disease already established on levodopa therapy and suffering from motor complications. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Handsearching of the neurology literature as part of the Cochrane Movement Disorders Group's strategy. Examination of the reference lists of identified studies and other reviews. Contact with SmithKline Beecham. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of ropinirole versus placebo in patients with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and long-term complications of levodopa therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data was abstracted independently by the authors and differences settled by discussion. The outcome measures used included Parkinson's disease rating scales, levodopa dosage, 'off' time measurements and the frequency of withdrawals and adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: Three double-blind, parallel group, randomised, controlled trials have been conducted on 263 patients. The two phase II studies were relatively small, were conducted over the short term (12 weeks), and used relatively low doses of ropinirole. The other phase III study was medium term (26 weeks) and used ropinirole doses in line with the current UK licensed maximum. Additional data from the manufacturer showed that the difference in the reduction in off time was non-significantly greater with ropinirole than placebo (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.19 hours; -0.63, 1.00 95% CI). As an adverse event, dyskinesia was significantly increased in those who received ropinirole (odds ratio [OR] 2.59; 1.35, 4.96 95% CI; p < 0.004). Measurements of motor impairments and disability were poor in these studies with incomplete information available. Levodopa dose could be reduced in two studies with a significantly larger reduction on ropinirole than on placebo (WMD 136.5mg/d; 74.5, 198.6 95% CI; p =0.00002). No significant differences in the frequency of adverse event reports were noted between ropinirole and placebo apart from the increase in dyskinesia with ropinirole. There was a trend towards fewer withdrawals from ropinirole but this did not reach statistical significance. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: Ropinirole therapy can reduce levodopa dose but at the expense of increased dyskinetic adverse events. No significant effect on off time reduction was found but this may have been due to under-powered trials and the low doses of ropinirole used in the phase II studies. Inadequate data on motor impairments and disability was collected to assess these outcomes. These conclusions apply to short and medium term treatment, up to 26 weeks. Further longer term trials are required, with measurements of effectiveness, and also studies to compare the newer with the older dopamine agonists. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10908503/Ropinirole_for_levodopa_induced_complications_in_Parkinson's_disease_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001516 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -