"Checkerboard" assessments of periodontal microbiota and serum antibody responses: a case-control study.J Periodontol. 2000 Jun; 71(6):885-97.JP
We explored the association between subgingival microbial profiles and serum IgG responses to periodontal microbiota in relation to clinical periodontal status.
One hundred thirty-one (131) periodontitis patients aged 29 to 74 years (mean 51.8) were age- and gender-matched with 74 periodontally intact controls (range 26 to 77, mean 49.3). Smoking habits and health history were recorded and assessments of plaque, bleeding on probing, probing depth, and attachment level were performed at 6 sites per tooth on all present teeth, excluding third molars. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained from each tooth in one upper and one lower quadrant (maximum 14 samples/subject; 2,440 samples total) and analyzed with respect to 19 species by means of whole genomic DNA probes. Serum IgG antibodies against the same 19 species were assessed by an immunoassay.
Cases displayed an average of 22.7 teeth, 20.3 sites with probing depth > or =6 mm, and 18.9 sites with attachment loss > or =6 mm. Corresponding figures for controls were 27.1, 0.1, and 1.0, respectively. Heavy smoking was 3 times more frequent among cases than controls (32.1% versus 9.6%). Higher levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella melaninogenica, Bacteroides forsythus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Eubacterium nodatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Campylobacter rectus were found in cases and higher levels of Eikenella corrodens, Veillonella parvula, and Actinomyces naeslundii in controls. Cases displayed higher IgG levels against P. gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, while controls displayed higher levels against F. nucleatum, T. denticola, E. nodatum, and Capnocytophaga ochracea. Positive correlations between bacterial colonization and antibody responses were identified for 9 species in controls. In cases, however, statistically significant correlations were observed for only 3 species out of which only one was positive (V. parvula). Both bacterial levels and antibody responses declined in ages over 55 years. A logistic regression employing selected elements of bacterial colonization and antibody responses as independent variables resulted in 81.1% correct diagnosis, with sensitivity of 83.1%, specificity of 77.8%, positive predictability of 86%, and negative predictability of 73.7%. Smoking did not reach statistical significance in this model.
A combined microbial colonization/antibody response profile can effectively discriminate between periodontitis patients and periodontally intact controls.