Microsatellite alterations on human chromosome 11 in in situ and invasive breast cancer: a microdissection microsatellite analysis and correlation with p53, ER (estrogen receptor), and PR (progesterone receptor) protein immunoreactivity.J Surg Oncol. 2000 Jun; 74(2):100-7.JS
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Microsatellite instability (MSI) has been documented in a subset of sporadic tumors. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 11 loci in breast cancer is a frequent event. The purpose of the present study is to examine the incidence of microsatellite alterations in in situ and invasive human breast carcinoma and to clarify their significance in regulating the dynamics of cancer progression.
Four highly polymorphic (CA)n repeat microsatellites were used to determine microsatellite alterations in ten ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 19 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). To investigate the expression of p53, ER (estrogen receptor), and PR (progesterone receptor) association with MSI, immunohistochemistry staining was applied.
MSI were detected in 20% (2/10) of DCIS and in 47.4% (9/19) of IDC. The frequency of MSI in IDC was significantly higher than that in DCIS (P < 0.001). Also, the MSI seemed to correlate with clinical stage (P = 0.0001) and tumor size (P = 0.004) but not histological grade or age. In addition, we found that 27% of the tumors showed LOH at 11q23.3-24 region between loci D11S934 and D11S912. Seven of nine MSI cases demonstrated low or no expression of p53. However, there was significantly reduced expression of PR, but not ER in MSI cases.
Our results suggest that breast cancer acquires the RER phenotype (replication-error phenotype) in the relatively late stages, and that the RER phenotype is associated with aggressiveness of IDC (infiltrative duct carcinoma). The result also implicated that mismatch repair failure can alter the expression of PR but not ER and p53.