Dietary heterocyclic amines and the risk of lung cancer among Missouri women.Cancer Res 2000; 60(14):3753-6CR
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) such as 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx,), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are found in meats cooked at high temperatures. In rodents, MeIQx induces lung tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate lung cancer risk posed by different HCAs in the diet. A population-based case-control study of 593 cases and 623 frequency-matched controls including both nonsmoking and smoking women was conducted in Missouri. An administered food frequency questionnaire with detailed questions on meat consumption, degrees of internal doneness, surface browning/charring, and cooking technique was linked to a database that provided exposure estimates of three HCAs. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression. When comparing the 90th and 10th percentiles, significant excess risks were observed for MeIQx (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.1-2.0), but not for DiMeIQx (OR, 1.2; CI, 0.9-1.6) or PhIP (OR, 0.9; CI, 0.8-1.1). MeIQx consumption was associated with increased risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers (OR, 3.6; CI, 1.3-10.3) and light/moderate smokers (OR, 2.1; CI, 1.3-3.3), but not for heavy smokers (OR, 1.0; CI, 0.7-1.5). There was elevated risk with MeIQx intake for subjects with squamous cell carcinomas (OR, 1.9; CI, 1.2-3.1) and "other histological cell types" (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.1-2.5), but not for subjects with small cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. Neither DiMeIQx nor PhIP showed an association with smoking categories or lung cancer histology. In conclusion, MeIQx may be associated with lung cancer risk, but DiMeIQx and PhIP are probably not associated with lung cancer risk.