An immunohistochemical study of matrix molecules associated with barrier membrane-mediated periodontal wound healing.J Periodontal Res 2000; 35(3):115-26JP
Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a clinical procedure developed to facilitate periodontal regeneration by using barrier membranes to selectively promote the repopulation of a periodontal defect by periodontal ligament and bone cells at the expense of epithelial and gingival connective tissue cells. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the biological events occurring during membrane mediated periodontal wound healing by examining the immunohistochemical expression of a number of extracellular matrix components in tissues treated via the GTR technique. Experimental periodontal defects were created around the second premolar tooth in 4 dogs and wound closure was achieved by application of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes around each tooth and flap positioning coronal to the cementoenamel junction. The dogs were sacrificed after a 4-wk healing period, block dissections of the part of the mandible containing the experimental tooth were obtained and paraffin sections were prepared. Using standard immunohistochemical techniques, the sections were stained with a monoclonal antibody against bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 (BMP-2 and -4) and polyclonal antibodies against collagen I, collagen II, decorin, biglycan, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin and osteocalcin. Collagen I was predominantly localized within the regenerating bone, whereas collagen III staining was more abundant in the soft connective tissues of the defect. Decorin and biglycan staining was faint within the extracellular matrix of the regenerating defect, although both proteoglycans exhibited intense intracellular localization within some of the cells inhabiting the defect. The staining for BMP-2 and -4 was weak within the bone but strong within the extracellular matrix of the regenerating soft tissue. Osteopontin and bone sialoprotein were strongly localized in the regenerating bone and cementum found within the defect. Osteocalcin staining was present in both the regenerating and mature cementum and associated cementoblasts, and it was relatively weaker in the regenerating bone compared to the mature bone. The observed pattern of immunolocalization of the extracellular matrix macromolecules suggests that the heterogeneous cell population filling the GTR wound had created an environment that was conducive to periodontal regeneration.