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Effects of reduced-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions on serum lipoprotein lipids and apolipoproteins.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effects on serum lipoproteins of three isocaloric diets with reduced total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents but with different proportions of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

DESIGN

A low-fat diet (LF) provided 20 en% fat, 7.9% SFA, 7.8% MUFA, 3.0% PUFA; a high-PUFA diet (HP) 26 en% fat, 7.5% SFA, 8.2% MUFA, 8.1% PUFA; and a high-MUFA diet (HM) 26 en% fat, 7.3% SFA, 14.1% MUFA, 3.2% PUFA. Diets were consumed for 8 weeks in a parallel design, after 2 weeks on a habitual diet with 33-34 en% fat, 13-14% SFA, 12% MUFA, 6% PUFA, and followed by an 8-week period on habitual diet. Compliance to diet was monitored by repeated food records and weekly visits to a nutritionist.

SUBJECTS

45 free-living, middle-aged couples who were randomly allocated into the three diet groups; 43 men and 44 women completed the study.

RESULTS

During the diet periods, a small but significant reduction in body weight of 0.4-1.0 kg was observed in all groups. Similar and significant reductions of mean weight-adjusted serum total cholesterol (4-8%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (7-11%), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (8-11%) were observed during the diets. HDL2-cholesterol and apoprotein (apo) A-I levels were reduced whereas HDL3-cholesterol and apoA-II increased. ApoB was significantly decreased during the HM diet only. Serum triglycerides increased significantly during diets LF (25%, P < 0.01) and HP (19%, P < 0.05) but not during diet HM (5%, NS).

CONCLUSIONS

Reduction in the intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids reduced serum LDL-cholesterol and HDL2-cholesterol concentrations irrespective of the relative proportions of MUFA and PUFA in the diets. The results suggest that there might be some advantage in increasing the proportion of MUFA in low-fat diets, since the HM diet rich in MUFA reduced apoB and slightly attenuated the increase in serum triglycerides that is commonly associated with dietary fat reduction.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. Antti.Aro@ktl.fi

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Public health nutrition 1:2 1998 Jun pg 109-16

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Apolipoproteins
    Cholesterol
    Diet, Fat-Restricted
    Fatty Acids
    Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
    Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
    Female
    Finland
    Humans
    Lipoproteins
    Male
    Middle Aged

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Controlled Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10933407

    Citation

    Aro, A, et al. "Effects of Reduced-fat Diets With Different Fatty Acid Compositions On Serum Lipoprotein Lipids and Apolipoproteins." Public Health Nutrition, vol. 1, no. 2, 1998, pp. 109-16.
    Aro A, Pietinen P, Valsta LM, et al. Effects of reduced-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions on serum lipoprotein lipids and apolipoproteins. Public Health Nutr. 1998;1(2):109-16.
    Aro, A., Pietinen, P., Valsta, L. M., Turpeinen, A. M., Ehnholm, C., Dougherty, R. M., & Iacono, J. M. (1998). Effects of reduced-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions on serum lipoprotein lipids and apolipoproteins. Public Health Nutrition, 1(2), pp. 109-16.
    Aro A, et al. Effects of Reduced-fat Diets With Different Fatty Acid Compositions On Serum Lipoprotein Lipids and Apolipoproteins. Public Health Nutr. 1998;1(2):109-16. PubMed PMID: 10933407.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of reduced-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions on serum lipoprotein lipids and apolipoproteins. AU - Aro,A, AU - Pietinen,P, AU - Valsta,L M, AU - Turpeinen,A M, AU - Ehnholm,C, AU - Dougherty,R M, AU - Iacono,J M, PY - 2000/8/10/pubmed PY - 2000/8/29/medline PY - 2000/8/10/entrez SP - 109 EP - 16 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 1 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on serum lipoproteins of three isocaloric diets with reduced total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents but with different proportions of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). DESIGN: A low-fat diet (LF) provided 20 en% fat, 7.9% SFA, 7.8% MUFA, 3.0% PUFA; a high-PUFA diet (HP) 26 en% fat, 7.5% SFA, 8.2% MUFA, 8.1% PUFA; and a high-MUFA diet (HM) 26 en% fat, 7.3% SFA, 14.1% MUFA, 3.2% PUFA. Diets were consumed for 8 weeks in a parallel design, after 2 weeks on a habitual diet with 33-34 en% fat, 13-14% SFA, 12% MUFA, 6% PUFA, and followed by an 8-week period on habitual diet. Compliance to diet was monitored by repeated food records and weekly visits to a nutritionist. SUBJECTS: 45 free-living, middle-aged couples who were randomly allocated into the three diet groups; 43 men and 44 women completed the study. RESULTS: During the diet periods, a small but significant reduction in body weight of 0.4-1.0 kg was observed in all groups. Similar and significant reductions of mean weight-adjusted serum total cholesterol (4-8%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (7-11%), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (8-11%) were observed during the diets. HDL2-cholesterol and apoprotein (apo) A-I levels were reduced whereas HDL3-cholesterol and apoA-II increased. ApoB was significantly decreased during the HM diet only. Serum triglycerides increased significantly during diets LF (25%, P < 0.01) and HP (19%, P < 0.05) but not during diet HM (5%, NS). CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in the intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids reduced serum LDL-cholesterol and HDL2-cholesterol concentrations irrespective of the relative proportions of MUFA and PUFA in the diets. The results suggest that there might be some advantage in increasing the proportion of MUFA in low-fat diets, since the HM diet rich in MUFA reduced apoB and slightly attenuated the increase in serum triglycerides that is commonly associated with dietary fat reduction. SN - 1368-9800 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10933407/Effects_of_reduced_fat_diets_with_different_fatty_acid_compositions_on_serum_lipoprotein_lipids_and_apolipoproteins_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980098000184/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -