Long-term feeding of dietary oils alters lipid metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities in a teleost (Anabas testudineus Bloch).Lipids. 2000 Jul; 35(7):757-62.L
Anabas testudineus (climbing perch), average body weight 21+/-1 g, were maintained in culture tanks and fed a 35% protein feed plus an additional supplementation of three dietary oils (20% each of coconut oil, palm oil, or cod liver oil). Body weight gain was similar among all groups. However, several hepatic lipogenic enzymes such as malic enzyme (ME), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) and beta-hydroxy-1-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMG CoA reductase) were assayed, and they responded differently. Hepatic ME and G6PDH activities showed a significant decrease in the coconut oil and palm oil groups, but there was no significant change in ICDH activity. The 6PGDH activities were reduced, whereas HMG CoA reductase activity was increased in the palm oil-treated group. Cholesterol synthesis in the liver and muscle increased in the palm oil-treated group, but liver phospholipids did not show any significant change in fish supplemented with oils rich in saturated fatty acids. Triacylglycerol and free fatty acid concentrations were high in the coconut oil- and palm oil-supplemented groups. Lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and conjugated dienes decreased in the same two groups. Antioxidant potential was high in all groups as evidenced by increased activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione content. The results of this study indicate that in fish, dietary lipids depress hepatic lipogenic activity as well as lipid peroxidation products by maintaining high levels of antioxidant enzymes.