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Fear, helplessness, and horror in posttraumatic stress disorder: investigating DSM-IV criterion A2 in victims of violent crime.
J Trauma Stress. 2000 Jul; 13(3):499-509.JT

Abstract

A DSM-IV diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) required for the first time that individuals must report experiencing intense fear, helplessness, or horror at the time of the trauma. In a longitudinal study of 138 victims of violent crime, we investigated whether reports of intense trauma-related emotions characterized individuals who, after 6 months, met criteria for PTSD according to the DSM-III-R. We found that intense levels of all 3 emotions strongly predicted later PTSD. However, a small number of those who later met DSM-III-R or ICD criteria for PTSD did not report intense emotions at the time of the trauma. They did, however, report high levels of either anger with others or shame.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Subdepartment of Clinical Health Psychology, University College London, England.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10948489

Citation

Brewin, C R., et al. "Fear, Helplessness, and Horror in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Investigating DSM-IV Criterion A2 in Victims of Violent Crime." Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 13, no. 3, 2000, pp. 499-509.
Brewin CR, Andrews B, Rose S. Fear, helplessness, and horror in posttraumatic stress disorder: investigating DSM-IV criterion A2 in victims of violent crime. J Trauma Stress. 2000;13(3):499-509.
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Rose, S. (2000). Fear, helplessness, and horror in posttraumatic stress disorder: investigating DSM-IV criterion A2 in victims of violent crime. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(3), 499-509.
Brewin CR, Andrews B, Rose S. Fear, Helplessness, and Horror in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Investigating DSM-IV Criterion A2 in Victims of Violent Crime. J Trauma Stress. 2000;13(3):499-509. PubMed PMID: 10948489.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fear, helplessness, and horror in posttraumatic stress disorder: investigating DSM-IV criterion A2 in victims of violent crime. AU - Brewin,C R, AU - Andrews,B, AU - Rose,S, PY - 2000/8/19/pubmed PY - 2001/2/28/medline PY - 2000/8/19/entrez SP - 499 EP - 509 JF - Journal of traumatic stress JO - J Trauma Stress VL - 13 IS - 3 N2 - A DSM-IV diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) required for the first time that individuals must report experiencing intense fear, helplessness, or horror at the time of the trauma. In a longitudinal study of 138 victims of violent crime, we investigated whether reports of intense trauma-related emotions characterized individuals who, after 6 months, met criteria for PTSD according to the DSM-III-R. We found that intense levels of all 3 emotions strongly predicted later PTSD. However, a small number of those who later met DSM-III-R or ICD criteria for PTSD did not report intense emotions at the time of the trauma. They did, however, report high levels of either anger with others or shame. SN - 0894-9867 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10948489/Fear_helplessness_and_horror_in_posttraumatic_stress_disorder:_investigating_DSM_IV_criterion_A2_in_victims_of_violent_crime_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007741526169 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -