Vitamin D(3) and vitamin K(1) supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities: effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin.Eur J Clin Nutr 2000; 54(8):626-31EJ
Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60 -y-old postmenopausal Dutch women.
In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n=96) and low (T-score< or =-1; n=45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with 350-400 IU vitamin D(3), 80 microg vitamins K(1) vitamins K(1)+D(3), or placebo for 1 y. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and percentage carboxylated osteocalcin (%carbOC) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months.
Baseline %carbOC of the entire study population was positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Correspondingly, women with low BMD had lower %carbOC at baseline than women with normal BMD but this difference disappeared after 1 y of supplementation with vitamin K(1) ((mean+/-s.d.) 68+/-11% (95% CI, 64. 5-71.2%) vs 72+/-6% (95% CI, 70.1-72.9%), respectively). One year of supplementation with vitamin D(3) showed maximum increases in 25(OH)D of 33+/-29% (95% CI, 24.8-41.8%) and 68+/-58% (95% CI, 50.1-84.6%) in women with normal and low BMD, respectively. During winter, however, a 29% decline in maximum 25(OH)D levels was not prevented in women with low BMD.
Daily supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with >400 IU vitamin D(3) is indicated to prevent a winter decline in 25(OH)D and to control serum parathyroid hormone levels. Daily supplementation with 80 microg vitamin K(1) seems to be necessary to reach premenopausal %carbOC levels. A stimulatory effect of calcium and/or vitamin D on %carbOC cannot be excluded. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 626-631.