The role of surface attraction in perceiving volumetric shape.Perception. 2000; 29(4):409-20.P
Rock [1973, Orientation and Form (New York: Academic Press)] showed that form perception generally depends more on the orientation of a stimulus in world coordinates than on its orientation in retinal coordinates. He suggested that the assignment of an object's 'environmental orientation' depends on gravity, visual frame of reference, and the observer's ability to impose orientation along one axis or another. This paper shows that the assignment of environmental orientation and perceived 3-D form also depends on the relationship between an object and retinally adjacent surfaces in the scene to which it might be attached. Whereas previous examples have demonstrated effects of orientation on 2-D form, we show that orientation can affect the perceived intrinsic 3-D shape of a volume.