Management of osteoporosis in primary biliary cirrhosis.Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2000; 14(4):629-41BB
Osteoporosis is not a significant problem in the majority of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). However, substantial bone-related morbidity may occur in patients with advanced disease, in particular after liver transplantation. The cause of osteoporosis in PBC is multifactorial, and pathophysiological mechanisms specifically related to PBC have not been defined. In general, the principles of management followed in post-menopausal osteoporosis also apply in chronic liver disease. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is currently the method of choice for monitoring bone mineral density. Avoidance of conditions with potential negative effects on bone mass, and maintaining adequate serum vitamin D levels and calcium intake form the cornerstone in preventing osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most logical choice when specific medical treatment of PBC-associated osteoporosis is indicated, as well as for preventing bone loss during glucocorticoid treatment and after liver transplantation. Recent studies suggest that active vitamin D analogues are effective alternatives in the post-transplant setting.