Improvement of intestinal absorption of macromolecules by nitric oxide donor.J Pharm Sci. 2000 Oct; 89(10):1296-304.JP
Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most versatile mediators in mammalian biology. In the present study, we investigated the absorption-enhancing effects of an NO donor, 3-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)-N-methyl-1-propa namine (NOC7), on drugs that are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. NOC7 significantly increased the jejunal absorption of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FDs) of different average molecular weights (4000-20,000). This enhancing effect decreased as the FD molecular weight increased. Another NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), also increased the absorption of FD-4 from the jejunum. The absorption enhancement effect of NOC7 significantly decreased after coadministration with an NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5, 5-tetramethylimidazole-1-oxyl-3-oxide, sodium salt. Furthermore, the enhancement effect of NOC7 was reversed shortly after cessation of the enhancer treatment. Little damage by NOC7 to the intestinal mucosa was observed in terms of release of lactose dehydrogenase and protein from the intestinal mucosa. NOC7 also increased the absorption of FD-4 by the colon and rectum. The findings suggest that an NO donor can improve the absorption of macromolecules from all regions of the rat intestine with very little mucosal damage and that an NO donor can act as a potent absorption enhancer.