The use and misuse of transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunts.Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2000 Feb; 2(1):61-71.CG
Transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunts, or TIPS, are used to create a low-resistance channel between the hepatic vein and the intrahepatic portion of the portal vein by deployment of an expandable metal stent. TIPS function like side-to-side surgical portacaval shunts, but their placement does not require anesthesia and major surgery. This article reviews the uses and misuses of TIPS in current practice. The uses include variceal hemorrhage and ascites as well as miscellaneous indications such as Budd-Chiari syndrome, veno-occlusive disease, bleeding ectopic and rectal varices, hepatic hydrothorax, and portal hypertensive gastropathy. TIPS is not indicated for primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage, prehepatic portal hypertension, correction of hypersplenism and thrombocytopenia, pulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portal hypertension associated with polycystic liver disease or Caroli's disease. Also reviewed herein is the management of patients after TIPS placement.