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Deacylation and reacylation of neural membrane glycerophospholipids.
J Mol Neurosci 2000; 14(3):123-35JM

Abstract

The deacylation-reacylation cycle is an important mechanism responsible for the introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids into neural membrane glycerophospholipids. It involves four enzymes, namely acyl-CoA synthetase, acyl-CoA hydrolase, acyl-CoA: lysophospholipid acyltransferase, and phospholipase A2. All of these enzymes have been purified and characterized from brain tissue. Under normal conditions, the stimulation of neural membrane receptors by neurotransmitters and growth factors results in the release of arachidonic acid from neural membrane glycerophospholipids. The released arachidonic acid acts as a second messenger itself. It can be further metabolized to eicosanoids, a group of second messengers involved in a variety of neurochemical functions. A lysophospholipid, the second product of reactions catalyzed by phospholipase A2, is rapidly acylated with acyl-CoA, resulting in the maintenance of the normal and essential neural membrane glycerophospholipid composition. However, under pathological situations (ischemia), the overstimulation of phospholipase A2 results in a rapid generation and accumulation of free fatty acids including arachidonic acid, eicosanoids, and lipid peroxides. This results in neural inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. In neural membranes, the deacylation-reacylation cycle maintains a balance between free and esterified fatty acids, resulting in low levels of arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. This is necessary for not only normal membrane integrity and function, but also for the optimal activity of the membrane-bound enzymes, receptors, and ion channels involved in normal signal-transduction processes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1218, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10984188

Citation

Farooqui, A A., et al. "Deacylation and Reacylation of Neural Membrane Glycerophospholipids." Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN, vol. 14, no. 3, 2000, pp. 123-35.
Farooqui AA, Horrocks LA, Farooqui T. Deacylation and reacylation of neural membrane glycerophospholipids. J Mol Neurosci. 2000;14(3):123-35.
Farooqui, A. A., Horrocks, L. A., & Farooqui, T. (2000). Deacylation and reacylation of neural membrane glycerophospholipids. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN, 14(3), pp. 123-35.
Farooqui AA, Horrocks LA, Farooqui T. Deacylation and Reacylation of Neural Membrane Glycerophospholipids. J Mol Neurosci. 2000;14(3):123-35. PubMed PMID: 10984188.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Deacylation and reacylation of neural membrane glycerophospholipids. AU - Farooqui,A A, AU - Horrocks,L A, AU - Farooqui,T, PY - 2000/9/13/pubmed PY - 2001/2/28/medline PY - 2000/9/13/entrez SP - 123 EP - 35 JF - Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN JO - J. Mol. Neurosci. VL - 14 IS - 3 N2 - The deacylation-reacylation cycle is an important mechanism responsible for the introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids into neural membrane glycerophospholipids. It involves four enzymes, namely acyl-CoA synthetase, acyl-CoA hydrolase, acyl-CoA: lysophospholipid acyltransferase, and phospholipase A2. All of these enzymes have been purified and characterized from brain tissue. Under normal conditions, the stimulation of neural membrane receptors by neurotransmitters and growth factors results in the release of arachidonic acid from neural membrane glycerophospholipids. The released arachidonic acid acts as a second messenger itself. It can be further metabolized to eicosanoids, a group of second messengers involved in a variety of neurochemical functions. A lysophospholipid, the second product of reactions catalyzed by phospholipase A2, is rapidly acylated with acyl-CoA, resulting in the maintenance of the normal and essential neural membrane glycerophospholipid composition. However, under pathological situations (ischemia), the overstimulation of phospholipase A2 results in a rapid generation and accumulation of free fatty acids including arachidonic acid, eicosanoids, and lipid peroxides. This results in neural inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. In neural membranes, the deacylation-reacylation cycle maintains a balance between free and esterified fatty acids, resulting in low levels of arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. This is necessary for not only normal membrane integrity and function, but also for the optimal activity of the membrane-bound enzymes, receptors, and ion channels involved in normal signal-transduction processes. SN - 0895-8696 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10984188/Deacylation_and_reacylation_of_neural_membrane_glycerophospholipids_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=10984188.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -