Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, muscle strength and nutritional state in 5- to 11-year-old children.Eur J Appl Physiol 2000; 82(5-6):425-38EJ
The purpose of the present study was to assess different aspects of physical activity and fitness in order to develop a basis for sport programmes for overweight and obese children. Eighty-eight prepubertal children (49 boys, 39 girls, 4.8-11.4 years old, 61% obese, 14% overweight and 25% normal weight) were examined. Body composition was assessed by combined use of anthropometrics and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) were measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) and individually calibrated 24-h heart rate (HR) monitoring, respectively. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity level (PAL) were calculated from TEE and REE. Fitness [assessed by O2-pulse, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at submaximal work intensities] was determined by ergometry. The maximal isometric muscle strength of the legs (m. quadriceps, Fa max, m. ischiocruralis, Fb max) was measured by computer tensiometry. Children were grouped according to their nutritional state, AEE, O2-pulse and muscle strength. When compared with normal weight children, obese and overweight children had increased fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), waist-to-hip ratio and REE, but no group differences were observed for TEE, AEE, and PAL. Obese and overweight children spent more hours per day watching TV. After correction for body weight and FFM, no group differences in REE were observed, but normal weight children had a higher O2-pulse than overweight and obese children. By contrast, RER was increased in the latter group. The fittest group had the lowest body weight, BMI, FM and FFM. Children with a low O2-pulse spent more hours per day watching TV. Grouping children according to their degree of muscle strength, younger children (4-7.5 years) did not show group differences in nutritional state, energy expenditure, physical activity and fitness. However, in the group of 7.6- to 11-year-old children, those with the greatest muscle strength and FFM had reduced BMI, skin folds, FM and FFM. FM correlated inversely with O2-pulse, but was not associated with TEE, AEE, PAL or muscle strength. By contrast TV consumption was positively associated with FM. To summarize, overweight and obese children were less fit and watched more TV than their normal weight counterparts. FM did not correspond to TEE, AEE or PAL. Muscle strength was not associated with FM in young children, but was inversely associated with FM in older children. Our cross-sectional data are consistent with the idea that increased fitness and reduced physical inactivity may prevent children from being overweight.