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Serum S100 protein as a marker of cerebral damage during cardiac surgery.
The identification of a serum marker to assist in the diagnosis of cerebral injury after cardiac surgery is potentially useful. S100 protein is an early marker of cerebral damage. It is released after cardiac surgery performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Its level is correlated with the duration of CPB, deep circulatory arrest and aortic cross-clamping. Increased levels of S100 protein are correlated with the age of the patient and the number of microemboli, especially during aortic cannulation. Perioperative cerebral complications such as stroke, delayed awakening and confusion are associated with increased levels of S100 protein directly after bypass and from 15 to 48 h after it. In addition, increased levels of S100 protein are related to neuropsychological dysfunction after cardiac surgery. S100 protein has early and late release patterns after CPB; the early pattern may be due to sub-clinical brain injury. The late release pattern may be due to perioperative cerebral complications. Patients undergoing intracardiac operations combined with coronary artery bypass surgery are more susceptible to brain injury and have higher levels of S100 after CPB. Furthermore, adults and children undergoing deep circulatory arrest are more susceptible to brain injury, in terms of higher S100 protein release after CPB. Serum S100 protein levels are reduced after using arterial line filtration and covalent-bonded heparin to coat the inner surface of the CPB circuit.
Department of Anaesthetics and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.,
Cardiac Surgical Procedures
Pub Type(s)Journal Article