Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits TNF-alpha-dependent activation of NF-kappaB by increasing intracellular copper level in human aortic smooth muscle cells.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Sep 16; 276(1):88-92.BB
Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a metal-chelating compound that acts as antioxidant or pro-oxidant and is widely used to study redox regulation of cell function. In the present study, we investigated effects of PDTC and another antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), on TNF-alpha-dependent activation of NF-kappaB in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Treatment of the cells with TNF-alpha induced the activation of p65/p50 heterodimer NF-kappaB and increased the mRNA levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Pretreatment with PDTC markedly suppressed the NF-kappaB activation and expression of MCP-1 by inhibiting IkappaB-alpha degradation. In contrast, NAC had no effect. PDTC concomitantly increased the intracellular levels of copper, and bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, a non-cell-permeable chelator of Cu(1+), inhibited the PDTC-induced increase in intracellular copper level and reversed the PDTC effects on IkappaB-alpha, NF-kappaB, and MCP-1. These results indicate that TNF-alpha-dependent expression of MCP-1 in HASMC is tightly regulated by NF-kappaB and that intracellular copper level is crucial for the TNF-alpha-dependent activation of NF-kappaB in HASMC.