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Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Oct; 72(4):922-8.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Prospective data relating fruit and vegetable intake to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are sparse, particularly for women.

OBJECTIVE

In a large, prospective cohort of women, we examined the hypothesis that higher fruit and vegetable intake reduces CVD risk.

DESIGN

In 1993 we assessed fruit and vegetable intake among 39876 female health professionals with no previous history of CVD or cancer by use of a detailed food-frequency questionnaire. We subsequently followed these women for an average of 5 y for incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft, or death due to CVD.

RESULTS

During 195647 person-years of follow-up, we documented 418 incident cases of CVD including 126 MIs. After adjustment for age, randomized treatment status, and smoking, we observed a significant inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and CVD risk. For increasing quintiles of total fruit and vegetable intake (median servings/d: 2. 6, 4.1, 5.5, 7.1, and 10.2), the corresponding relative risks (RRs) were 1.0 (reference), 0.78, 0.72, 0.68, and 0.68 (95% CI comparing the 2 extreme quintiles: 0.51, 0.92; P: for trend = 0.01). An inverse, though not statistically significant, trend remained after additional adjustment for other known CVD risk factors, with RRs of 1.0, 0.75, 0.83, 0.80, and 0.85 (95% CI for extreme quintiles: 0.61, 1.17). After excluding participants with a self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol at baseline, the multivariate-adjusted RR was 0.45 when extreme quintiles were compared (95% CI: 0.22, 0.91; P: for trend = 0.09). Higher fruit and vegetable intake was also associated with a lower risk of MI, with an adjusted RR of 0.62 for extreme quintiles (95% CI: 0.37, 1.04; P: for trend = 0.07).

CONCLUSION

These data suggest that higher intake of fruit and vegetables may be protective against CVD and support current dietary guidelines to increase fruit and vegetable intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Preventive Medicine and Channing Laboratory, the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. simin.liu@channing.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11010932

Citation

Liu, S, et al. "Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: the Women's Health Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, no. 4, 2000, pp. 922-8.
Liu S, Manson JE, Lee IM, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(4):922-8.
Liu, S., Manson, J. E., Lee, I. M., Cole, S. R., Hennekens, C. H., Willett, W. C., & Buring, J. E. (2000). Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(4), 922-8.
Liu S, et al. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: the Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(4):922-8. PubMed PMID: 11010932.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study. AU - Liu,S, AU - Manson,J E, AU - Lee,I M, AU - Cole,S R, AU - Hennekens,C H, AU - Willett,W C, AU - Buring,J E, PY - 2000/9/30/pubmed PY - 2000/10/21/medline PY - 2000/9/30/entrez SP - 922 EP - 8 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 72 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Prospective data relating fruit and vegetable intake to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are sparse, particularly for women. OBJECTIVE: In a large, prospective cohort of women, we examined the hypothesis that higher fruit and vegetable intake reduces CVD risk. DESIGN: In 1993 we assessed fruit and vegetable intake among 39876 female health professionals with no previous history of CVD or cancer by use of a detailed food-frequency questionnaire. We subsequently followed these women for an average of 5 y for incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft, or death due to CVD. RESULTS: During 195647 person-years of follow-up, we documented 418 incident cases of CVD including 126 MIs. After adjustment for age, randomized treatment status, and smoking, we observed a significant inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and CVD risk. For increasing quintiles of total fruit and vegetable intake (median servings/d: 2. 6, 4.1, 5.5, 7.1, and 10.2), the corresponding relative risks (RRs) were 1.0 (reference), 0.78, 0.72, 0.68, and 0.68 (95% CI comparing the 2 extreme quintiles: 0.51, 0.92; P: for trend = 0.01). An inverse, though not statistically significant, trend remained after additional adjustment for other known CVD risk factors, with RRs of 1.0, 0.75, 0.83, 0.80, and 0.85 (95% CI for extreme quintiles: 0.61, 1.17). After excluding participants with a self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol at baseline, the multivariate-adjusted RR was 0.45 when extreme quintiles were compared (95% CI: 0.22, 0.91; P: for trend = 0.09). Higher fruit and vegetable intake was also associated with a lower risk of MI, with an adjusted RR of 0.62 for extreme quintiles (95% CI: 0.37, 1.04; P: for trend = 0.07). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that higher intake of fruit and vegetables may be protective against CVD and support current dietary guidelines to increase fruit and vegetable intake. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11010932/Fruit_and_vegetable_intake_and_risk_of_cardiovascular_disease:_the_Women's_Health_Study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/72.4.922 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -