Dietary effects on insulin and nutrient metabolism in mesenteric lymph node cells, splenocytes, and pancreatic islets of BB rats.Metabolism 2000; 49(9):1111-7M
The present studies were performed to determine if a protective diet has different effects on the metabolic activity or function of islet cells, as well as the metabolic activity of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells and spleen cells, from BioBreeding (BB) rats. Diabetes-prone BB (BBdp) rats and control non-diabetes-prone BB (BBc) rats were fed for about 20 days either a mainly plant-based diabetogenic diet, NIH-07 (NIH), or a protective semipurified diet with hydrolyzed casein (HC) as the amino acid source. At 6 to 8 weeks of age, BBdp rats had high plasma D-glucose and low insulin concentrations, low insulin content, and low metabolic and secretory responses to D-glucose in isolated pancreatic islets. Islet metabolism, as measured by accumulation of 14C-acidic metabolites, amino acids, and the ratio of D-[U-14C]glucose oxidation and D-[5-3H]glucose utilization was increased in control rats fed HC (P < .05); a similar trend in BBdp rats was not significant. Feeding the HC diet increased islet insulin content (P < .01) by 13% in BBdp and 23% in BBc rats; other metabolic and hormonal variables were unaffected. Compared with BBc rats, BBdp rats displayed higher rates of L-[U-14C]glutamine oxidation, D-[5-3H]glucose utilization, and D-[U-14C]glucose oxidation in MLN cells, but not in splenocytes. There was a dramatic decrease of L-[U-14C]glutamine oxidation in MLN cells from BBc and BBdp rats fed HC. Glycolysis was decreased in control rats. We conclude that the protection afforded by feeding BBdp rats a HC diet is associated with increased insulin in target beta cells and downregulation of metabolic activity in gut-associated MLN cells. Metabolic activity in splenocytes, cells representative of the systemic immune system, was less affected. These data suggest that diet-induced metabolic changes occur in the islets and nearby cells of the gut immune system in the period before classic insulitis. Changes in the islets were smaller in comparison to the dramatic remodeling of nutrient catabolism in MLN cells. MLN downregulation may reflect baseline metabolic activity in the absence of diabetogenic (or other) food antigens and further highlights an important interaction between diabetogenic food antigens and the gut immune tissues.