Affinities among anostracan (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) families inferred from phylogenetic analyses of multiple gene sequences.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2000 Oct; 17(1):117-28.MP
To gain insights into the relationships among anostracan families, molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed on nuclear (28S D1-D3 ribosomal DNA) and mitochondrial (16S rDNA, COI) gene regions for representatives of seven families and an outgroup. Data matrices used in the analyses included 951 base pairs (bp) of aligned sequences for 28S, 465 bp for 16S, and 658 bp (219 amino acids) for COI. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees, enabling the evaluation of both previous hypotheses of taxonomic relationships among families based on morphology, and of the relative merits of independent versus simultaneous analyses of multiple data sets for phylogeny construction. Data from various combinations of the gene regions produced relatively congruent patterns of phylogenetic affinity. In most analyses, two monophyletic groups were resolved: one cluster included the families Polyartemiidae, Chirocephalidae, Branchinectidae, Streptocephalidae, and Thamnocephalidae, while the other contained the Artemiidae and Branchipodidae. Comparative analyses showed that combining gene regions in a single matrix generally resulted in increased resolution and support for each cluster relative to those obtained from single-gene analyses. Statistical tests demonstrated that morphology-based hypotheses of relationships among families had poorer support than those determined from molecular data, reflecting the homoplasy in characters used to differentiate families.