Comparison of four chronic toxicity tests using algae, bacteria, and invertebrates assessed with sixteen chemicals.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2000 Oct; 47(2):186-94.EE
The performances of four chronic toxicity tests, comprising the Daphnia magna 21-day (d) (crustacean), Brachionus calyciflorus 2-d (rotifer), Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata 72-h (green algae), and the Microtox chronic 22-h (bacteria) tests, were compared. Sixteen chemicals with toxicity covering 6 orders of magnitude were studied. Very high correlations were found between the NOEC/EC(10) Pseudokirchneriella 72-h, NOEC/EC(10) Brachionus 2-d, and the NOEC Daphnia 21-d tests. The toxicological response of rotifers and microalgae were within the same order of magnitude as the response of Daphnia in 80% of cases (13/16 chemicals). The Microtox chronic test also anticipated the overall results of the Daphnia 21-d test, but the prediction was rather imprecise, compared with microalgae and rotifers. The test measuring the algal growth inhibition of P. subcapitata after 72h was the most sensitive bioassay. Toxicity on microalgae after 72h could be estimated after 5h by measuring either the direct fluorescence of either photosynthetic pigments or fluorescein diacetate in 56 and 43% of cases, respectively. The median value of the ratio between EC(10) and EC(50) was 3.75, 2, and 1.5 with the algae, the rotifers, and the bacteria, respectively.