Liver transplantation in the United States: a report from the UNOS Liver Transplant Registry.Clin Transpl. 1999CT
Transplants and centers Between 1988 and 1998 the number of liver transplants performed in the US more than doubled from 1,713 to 4,487; the number of centers increased from 59 to 116. The number of living donor, segmental, and multiple organ transplants also increased over time. The rate of increase in the number of centers has slowed over the last few years. Outcomes. Survival among pediatric recipients. The one- and 7-year graft survival rates for pediatric recipients were 72% and 62%, respectively. The one- and 7-year patient survival rates were 85% and 79%. Patient survival did not decrease much after the first 2 years and graft survival stabilized after 4 years posttransplant. Some of the factors associated with increased odds of graft failure and patient death at 6 months posttransplant included having a previous transplant; being hospitalized, in the ICU, or on life support at the time of transplant; creatinine > 2 mg/dl; donor age and race/ethnicity; and transplant type. Factors associated with decreased odds of graft failure or patient death were recipient gender, recipient race/ethnicity, having a metabolic disease and receiving a living donor liver. Among grafts/recipients surviving the first 6 months after transplantation, recipient race/ethnicity, primary liver disease, having a previous transplant, donor age and race/ethnicity, and transplant type were associated with a greater relative risk of graft failure and mortality. Survival among adult recipients. The one- and 7-year graft survival rates among adult recipients were 77% and 57%, respectively. The one- and 7-year patient survival rates were 85% and 67%. Survival rates decreased steadily at all time points following transplantation. Some of the factors associated with increased odds of graft failure and mortality at 6 months after transplantation were recipient age and race/ethnicity; primary liver disease; having a previous transplant; being hospitalized, in the ICU, or on life support at the time of transplant; longer cold ischemia time; older donor age, race/ethnicity, or gender; and having a non-identical recipient/donor blood type match. Having cholestatic liver disease/cirrhosis and shorter cold ischemia times were associated with decreased odds of graft failure and mortality. Many of these characteristics also affected grafts and patients surviving the first 6 months, including recipient race/ethnicity, primary liver disease, previous transplant, and donor age.