The effects of olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol on plasma prolactin levels in patients with schizophrenia.Clin Ther. 2000 Sep; 22(9):1085-96.CT
There is relatively little comparative information on elevations in plasma prolactin level (PRL) with conventional versus novel antipsychotic agents.
This paper examines the comparative effects on PRL of olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol based on data from 3 multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trials. Magnitude of response, dose dependency, time course, effects of sex and age, and response to switching from haloperidol to olanzapine are assessed.
The effects of olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol on PRL were assessed in patients with schizophrenia or related psychoses participating in 3 double-blind clinical trials: (1) a 6-week acute trial comparing olanzapine 5 to 20 mg/d (n = 1,336) and haloperidol 5 to 20 mg/d (n = 660), with a 1-year, open-label olanzapine extension for responders; (2) a 54-week study comparing olanzapine 5 to 20 mg/d (n = 21), risperidone 4 to 10 mg/d (n = 21), and haloperidol 5 to 20 mg/d (n = 23) in early illness; and (3) a 28-week study comparing olanzapine 10 to 20 mg/d (n = 172) and risperidone 4 to 12 mg/d (n = 167).
PRL elevations were significantly greater with risperidone than with either olanzapine or haloperidol in study 2. and significantly greater than with olanzapine in study 3 (all, P < 0.001). PRL elevations were significantly greater with haloperidol than with olanzapine in study 1 (P < 0.001). A dose-response relationship was not consistently confirmed with any of the drug treatments. Risperidone-associated PRL elevations peaked relatively early in treatment. In haloperidol- and risperidone-treated patients, the mean change in PRL was greater in women than in men. PRL decreased significantly when treatment was switched from haloperidol to olanzapine.
This side-by-side analysis of 3 independent studies suggests that with the 3 antipsychotic drugs studied, PRL is elevated moderately by olanzapine (mean change, 1-4 ng/mL), intermediately by haloperidol (mean change, approximately 17 ng/mL), and strongly by risperidone (mean change, 45-80 ng/mL). No consistent dose-response relationship was observed, and the time course and sex-dependency of the response differed between the 3 agents. Patients with haloperidol-induced hyperprolactinemia may benefit from a switch to olanzapine. Long-term studies examining the health consequences of chronic hyperprolactinemia during antipsychotic treatment are needed.