[HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in prevention of cardiovascular diseases: new mechanisms, aspects and trials].Przegl Lek. 2000; 57(5):291-5.PL
Use of lipid-lowering drugs in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) decreases significantly risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, incidence of cardiovascular events, reduces the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as well as total mortality. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are most potent cholesterol-lowering drugs. Statins act by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity, a rate--limiting step in synthesis of cholesterol and important metabolites of mevalonate--isoprenoids. The mechanisms by which favourable antiatherogenic actions of statins occur are complex. Statins inhibit proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, reduce free-radicals generation and LDL modification, lower Lp(a) concentration, inhibit macrophage-derived foam cells accumulation and inhibit activation of platelets, thromboxane and PAI-1 synthesis. Use of statins in the therapy of hypercholesterolemia is presently recommended by NCEP, especially in high-risk groups (diabetes, post-CABG and PTCA, kidney and heart transplantation). Nevertheless, patients with CAD and moderately elevated LDL-C levels also benefit from the treatment with statins. Because of high costs of the therapy, statins of most favourable pharmacoeconomic profile should be used.