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Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Diets high in fruits and vegetables have been shown to be associated with a lower risk of lung cancer. beta-Carotene was hypothesized to be largely responsible for the apparent protective effect, but this hypothesis was not supported by clinical trials.

METHODS

We examined the association between lung cancer risk and fruit and vegetable consumption in 77 283 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 47 778 men in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. Diet was assessed with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire that included 15 fruits and 23 vegetables. We used logistic regression models to estimate relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer within each cohort. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

We documented 519 lung cancer cases among the women and 274 among the men. Total fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a modestly lower risk of lung cancer among the women but not among the men. The RR for the highest versus lowest quintile of intake was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59-1.06) among the women and 1.12 (95% CI = 0.74-1.69) among the men after adjustment for smoking status, quantity of cigarettes smoked per day, time since quitting smoking, and age at initiation of smoking. However, total fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a lower risk of lung cancer among never smokers in the combined cohorts, although the reduction was not statistically significant (RR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.35-1.12 in the highest tertile).

CONCLUSION

Higher fruit and vegetable intakes were associated with lower risks of lung cancer in women but not in men. It is possible that the inverse association among the women remained confounded by unmeasured smoking characteristics, although fruits and vegetables were protective in both men and women who never smoked.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. diane.feskanich@channing.harvard.edu

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92:22 2000 Nov 15 pg 1812-23

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Diet Surveys
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Fruit
    Health Personnel
    Humans
    Logistic Models
    Lung Neoplasms
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Prospective Studies
    Risk
    Risk Factors
    Smoking
    United States
    Vegetables

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11078758

    Citation

    Feskanich, D, et al. "Prospective Study of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Risk of Lung Cancer Among Men and Women." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 92, no. 22, 2000, pp. 1812-23.
    Feskanich D, Ziegler RG, Michaud DS, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(22):1812-23.
    Feskanich, D., Ziegler, R. G., Michaud, D. S., Giovannucci, E. L., Speizer, F. E., Willett, W. C., & Colditz, G. A. (2000). Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92(22), pp. 1812-23.
    Feskanich D, et al. Prospective Study of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Risk of Lung Cancer Among Men and Women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Nov 15;92(22):1812-23. PubMed PMID: 11078758.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women. AU - Feskanich,D, AU - Ziegler,R G, AU - Michaud,D S, AU - Giovannucci,E L, AU - Speizer,F E, AU - Willett,W C, AU - Colditz,G A, PY - 2000/11/18/pubmed PY - 2001/5/18/medline PY - 2000/11/18/entrez SP - 1812 EP - 23 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 92 IS - 22 N2 - BACKGROUND: Diets high in fruits and vegetables have been shown to be associated with a lower risk of lung cancer. beta-Carotene was hypothesized to be largely responsible for the apparent protective effect, but this hypothesis was not supported by clinical trials. METHODS: We examined the association between lung cancer risk and fruit and vegetable consumption in 77 283 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 47 778 men in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. Diet was assessed with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire that included 15 fruits and 23 vegetables. We used logistic regression models to estimate relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer within each cohort. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We documented 519 lung cancer cases among the women and 274 among the men. Total fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a modestly lower risk of lung cancer among the women but not among the men. The RR for the highest versus lowest quintile of intake was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59-1.06) among the women and 1.12 (95% CI = 0.74-1.69) among the men after adjustment for smoking status, quantity of cigarettes smoked per day, time since quitting smoking, and age at initiation of smoking. However, total fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a lower risk of lung cancer among never smokers in the combined cohorts, although the reduction was not statistically significant (RR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.35-1.12 in the highest tertile). CONCLUSION: Higher fruit and vegetable intakes were associated with lower risks of lung cancer in women but not in men. It is possible that the inverse association among the women remained confounded by unmeasured smoking characteristics, although fruits and vegetables were protective in both men and women who never smoked. SN - 0027-8874 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11078758/Prospective_study_of_fruit_and_vegetable_consumption_and_risk_of_lung_cancer_among_men_and_women_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=11078758.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -