Protein kinase Cdelta activation by interleukin-1beta stabilizes inducible nitric-oxide synthase mRNA in pancreatic beta-cells.J Biol Chem 2001; 276(7):5368-74JB
Exposure of pancreatic islets to cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta induces a variety of proinflammatory genes including type II nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) which produces nitric oxide (NO). NO is thought to be a major cause of islet beta-cell dysfunction and apoptotic beta-cell death, which results in type I diabetes. Since protein kinase C (PKC) mediates some of the actions of cytokines in other cell types, our aim was to assess the role of PKC in IL-1beta-induced iNOS expression in pancreatic beta-cells. PKCdelta, but not PKCalpha, was specifically activated in the rat INS-1 beta-cell line by IL-1beta as assessed by membrane translocation. Moreover, iNOS expression and NO production were significantly attenuated by the PKCdelta specific inhibitor rottlerin and overexpression of a PKCdelta kinase-dead mutant protein. Conversely, overexpression of PKCdelta wild type protein significantly potentiated this response. These results were confirmed at the mRNA level by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. However, a role at the level of transcriptional regulation appeared unlikely, since PKCdelta was not required for the activation of NF-kappaB, activating protein 1, and activating transcription factor 2 signaling pathways in response to IL-1beta. There was, however, a significant increase in iNOS mRNA stability mediated by PKCdelta wild type, while PKCdelta kinase-dead acted reciprocally, reducing iNOS mRNA stability. The results indicate that, in addition to transcriptional activation, mRNA stabilization is a key component of the mechanism by which IL-1beta stimulates iNOS expression in beta-cells and that PKCdelta plays an essential role in this process. PKCdelta activation may therefore have significant consequences with regard to cellular function and viability when beta-cells are exposed to IL-1beta and potentially other cytokines.