Absorbed dose and deterministic effects to patients from interventional neuroradiology.Br J Radiol. 2000 Jul; 73(871):745-51.BJ
Following the presentation of radiation-induced skin effects by three patients who had undergone glue embolisation of intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM), measurements were made of absorbed dose to the skin of patients undergoing other interventional neuroradiological procedures that involve long fluoroscopy times. The maximum absorbed dose to the skin measured by thermoluminescent dosemeters during these procedures was 4 Gy. From these measurements and from records of fluoroscopy time and the number of digital runs acquired, estimates of the maximum absorbed skin dose were made for the AVM patients. The best estimate of maximum absorbed dose to the skin received by any of the AVM patients during a procedure was 5 Gy, which is consistent with the skin effects presented by the AVM patients, that is temporary epilation and main erythema. Maximum absorbed dose to the skull was estimated to be 45 Gy and to the outer table of the skull 55 Gy. Although it is unlikely that the AVM patients will suffer serious effects from these skin doses, there remains some uncertainty over the risk of long-term effects to the skull. Examination of the fluoroscopy unit showed that the image intensifier was not performing optimally in terms of entrance dose rate and resolution. Replacement of the unit with modern X-ray equipment designed for interventional radiology was prioritized. Operators should be aware of the potential risks to patients from complex interventional neuroradiology procedures and should optimize their procedures to minimize such risks. Patients undergoing prolonged and complex procedures should be counselled regarding the symptoms and risks of large doses of radiation.