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Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Nov; 63(5):287-92.PL

Abstract

Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. We investigated whether supplementation of nine apparently healthy vegans with 2.01 g ALA (4 ml linseed oil), 1.17 g gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (6 ml borage oil) or their combination increases the LCP omega 3 contents of erythrocytes (RBC) and platelets (PLT), and of plasma phospholipids (PL), cholesterol esters (CE) and triglycerides (TG). The supplements changed the dietary LA/ALA ratio (in g/g) from about 13.7 (baseline) to 6.8 (linseed oil), 14.3 (borage oil) and 6.4 (linseed + borage oil), respectively. ALA or GLA given as single supplements did not increase LCP omega 3 status, but their combination augmented LCP omega 3 (in CE) and EPA (in fasting TG) to a statistically significant, but nevertheless negligible, extent. We conclude that negative feedback inhibition by dietary LCP, if any, does not play an important role in the inability to augment notably DHA status by dietary ALA. The reach of a DHA plateau already at low dietary ALA intakes suggests that dietary DHA causes a non-functional DHA surplus, or is, alternatively, important for maintaining DHA status at a functionally relevant level.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen, The Netherlands. m.r.fokkema@path.azg.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11090255

Citation

Fokkema, M R., et al. "Short-term Supplementation of Low-dose Gamma-linolenic Acid (GLA), Alpha-linolenic Acid (ALA), or GLA Plus ALA Does Not Augment LCP Omega 3 Status of Dutch Vegans to an Appreciable Extent." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 63, no. 5, 2000, pp. 287-92.
Fokkema MR, Brouwer DA, Hasperhoven MB, et al. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000;63(5):287-92.
Fokkema, M. R., Brouwer, D. A., Hasperhoven, M. B., Martini, I. A., & Muskiet, F. A. (2000). Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 63(5), 287-92.
Fokkema MR, et al. Short-term Supplementation of Low-dose Gamma-linolenic Acid (GLA), Alpha-linolenic Acid (ALA), or GLA Plus ALA Does Not Augment LCP Omega 3 Status of Dutch Vegans to an Appreciable Extent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000;63(5):287-92. PubMed PMID: 11090255.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent. AU - Fokkema,M R, AU - Brouwer,D A, AU - Hasperhoven,M B, AU - Martini,I A, AU - Muskiet,F A, PY - 2000/11/25/pubmed PY - 2001/3/3/medline PY - 2000/11/25/entrez SP - 287 EP - 92 JF - Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids JO - Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids VL - 63 IS - 5 N2 - Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. We investigated whether supplementation of nine apparently healthy vegans with 2.01 g ALA (4 ml linseed oil), 1.17 g gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (6 ml borage oil) or their combination increases the LCP omega 3 contents of erythrocytes (RBC) and platelets (PLT), and of plasma phospholipids (PL), cholesterol esters (CE) and triglycerides (TG). The supplements changed the dietary LA/ALA ratio (in g/g) from about 13.7 (baseline) to 6.8 (linseed oil), 14.3 (borage oil) and 6.4 (linseed + borage oil), respectively. ALA or GLA given as single supplements did not increase LCP omega 3 status, but their combination augmented LCP omega 3 (in CE) and EPA (in fasting TG) to a statistically significant, but nevertheless negligible, extent. We conclude that negative feedback inhibition by dietary LCP, if any, does not play an important role in the inability to augment notably DHA status by dietary ALA. The reach of a DHA plateau already at low dietary ALA intakes suggests that dietary DHA causes a non-functional DHA surplus, or is, alternatively, important for maintaining DHA status at a functionally relevant level. SN - 0952-3278 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11090255/Short_term_supplementation_of_low_dose_gamma_linolenic_acid__GLA__alpha_linolenic_acid__ALA__or_GLA_plus_ALA_does_not_augment_LCP_omega_3_status_of_Dutch_vegans_to_an_appreciable_extent_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0952-3278(00)90216-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -