[Surgical transvenous embolization of spontaneous carotid cavernous sinus fistulas in two patients].Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2000 Oct; 217(4):240-5.KM
Arteriovenous communications in which blood flows from meningeal branches of the internal and external carotid arteries into the venous circulation around and in the cavernous sinus are termed spontaneous (dural) carotid sinus cavernous fistulas. Due to their mostly low shunt volume they are rarely life threatening, but without treatment they may cause severe ocular complications like episcleral secondary glaucoma, central vein occlusion or exudative retinal detachment. Traditional therapy is the transarterial approach by an interventional neuroradiologist. If such an approach is not possible or unsuccessful a transvenous route has to be considered.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Two patients underwent anterior orbitotomy via sub brow incision or infraciliary incision with cannulation of the superior ophthalmic vein or the inferior ophthalmic vein and embolization of the cavernous sinus with platinum coils.
Successful closure was achieved on angiography and normalisation of clinical symptoms after a short period of progressive venous congestion.
For arteriovenous fistulas that cannot be embolized arterially the surgical transvenous orbital route may work as a method of second choice. When performed by an interdisciplinary team (orbital surgeon, interventionell neuroradiologist) it is a technically straightforward, effective and promising approach.