Comparison of high-fat and high-carbohydrate foods in a meal or snack on short-term fat and energy intakes in obese women.Br J Nutr. 2000 Oct; 84(4):521-30.BJ
The present study aimed to compare the action of high-fat and high-carbohydrate (CHO) foods on meal size (satiation) and post-meal satiety in obese women. A within-subjects design was used; each participant received all four nutritional challenges. Fifteen healthy obese women (age 21-56 years, BMI 35-48 kg/m2) participated; thirteen completed all four test days. On two test days, participants were exposed to a nutritional challenge comprising an ad libitum high-fat or high-CHO lunch. On the other two test days they were exposed to a challenge comprising an ad libitum sweet high-fat or high-CHO mid-afternoon snack. Energy and macronutrient intakes were measured at each eating episode. Visual analogue rating scales were completed periodically to record subjective feelings of appetite. When offered a high-CHO selection of foods at lunch and mid-afternoon participants consumed less energy than when offered a high-fat selection. However, post-meal satiety was similar. Total test-day energy intake was significantly higher when high-fat foods were consumed at lunch, but not as a snack. Consumption of high-fat foods at a lunch and snack increased the amount of fat consumed over the whole test day. In conclusion, energy intake of an eating episode was influenced by nutrient composition in this group of obese women. Consumption of high-fat foods at lunch or as a snack led to overconsumption relative to high-CHO foods. However, high-fat foods at meals may have greater potential to influence daily intake than at snacks, probably because meals are larger eating episodes and therefore give greater opportunity to overconsume.