Ochratoxin A in Brazilian roasted and instant coffees.Food Addit Contam. 2000 Oct; 17(10):867-70.FA
Thirty-four samples of roast and ground coffee, 14 samples of instant coffee and two samples of decaffeinated instant coffee were collected in markets and supermarkets in the city of Campinas, Brazil, and analysed for ochratoxin A using immunoaffinity columns for clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection for quantification. The limit of detection was 0.2 ng/g ochratoxin A. Twenty-three samples of ground and roast coffee were found to be contaminated with the toxin at levels ranging between 0.3 and 6.5 ng/g. The average concentration in all 34 samples was 0.9 ng/g. All samples of instant coffee contained ochratoxin A at levels ranging from 0.5 to 5.1 ng/g, with an average figure of 2.2 ng/g. Roast and ground coffee is the type of coffee most used by Brazilians for the preparation of the beverage. Considering that an average Brazilian adult takes five cups of coffee per day, which corresponds to 30 g of roast and ground coffee, the probable daily intake of ochratoxin A by a 70 kg adult would be 0.4 ng/kg bw, which is far below the current Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake of 14 ng/kg bw for ochratoxin A as set by the Codex Alimentarius. To study the transfer of ochratoxin A into coffee brew, the beverage was prepared by two methods: (a) the drip method and (b) the Brazilian country style method. No significant difference was observed between the two methods in terms of extraction of the toxin using five contaminated samples containing between 0.8 and 6.5 ng/g ochratoxin A. The drip method extracted 86 +/- 15% and the Brazilian country style 74 +/- 20% of the ochratoxin A initially present in the roast and ground coffee.