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The effect of a probiotic milk product on plasma cholesterol: a meta-analysis of short-term intervention studies.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Certain fermented dairy milk products may have beneficial effects on plasma cholesterol levels. However, a number of studies have produced conflicting results as to whether dietary supplementation by a probiotic dairy product containing the bacteria culture Causido(R) reduces plasma cholesterol.

OBJECTIVE

To conduct a meta-analysis of intervention studies to evaluate the effect of the Causido(R) culture on plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. THE PROBIOTIC MILK PRODUCT: The yoghurt product Gaio(R) is fermented with Causido(R), composed of one strain of Enterococcus faecium (human species) with the proposed cholesterol-lowering effect, and two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus. STUDY INCLUSION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Six studies were identified from a literature search and from the yoghurt producer. All studies met the inclusion criteria. Summary data for plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were extracted from the original publications or by personal request to the authors. Data from 4-8 weeks of treatment duration was used.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

We performed a traditional meta-analysis where mean differences between intervention and control of the pre-post changes in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were calculated, as well as 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS

In the six studies included in the meta-analysis, the Gaio(R) interventions produced changes in total cholesterol above those of the control groups ranging from -0.02 to -1.02 mmol/l and in LDL-cholesterol ranging from -0.02 to -1.15 mmol/l. After inclusion of an open-label study, the meta-analysis of the double-blind studies showed that Gaio(R) as compared to the control group changed total cholesterol by -0.22 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.35 to -0.08, P<0.01) and LDL-cholesterol by -0.20 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.33 to -0.06, P<0.005). The outcome was essentially the same if all studies were included.

CONCLUSIONS

The present meta-analysis of controlled short-term intervention studies shows that the fermented yoghurt product produced a 4% decrease in total cholesterol and a 5% decrease in LDL-cholesterol when the open-label study is excluded. To demonstrate sustained effects on blood lipids, long-term studies are required.

SPONSORSHIP

MD Foods A/S, Denmark.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Food Research, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Enterococcus faecium
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Probiotics
    Streptococcus
    Yogurt

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11114681

    Citation

    Agerholm-Larsen, L, et al. "The Effect of a Probiotic Milk Product On Plasma Cholesterol: a Meta-analysis of Short-term Intervention Studies." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 11, 2000, pp. 856-60.
    Agerholm-Larsen L, Bell ML, Grunwald GK, et al. The effect of a probiotic milk product on plasma cholesterol: a meta-analysis of short-term intervention studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(11):856-60.
    Agerholm-Larsen, L., Bell, M. L., Grunwald, G. K., & Astrup, A. (2000). The effect of a probiotic milk product on plasma cholesterol: a meta-analysis of short-term intervention studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54(11), pp. 856-60.
    Agerholm-Larsen L, et al. The Effect of a Probiotic Milk Product On Plasma Cholesterol: a Meta-analysis of Short-term Intervention Studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(11):856-60. PubMed PMID: 11114681.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of a probiotic milk product on plasma cholesterol: a meta-analysis of short-term intervention studies. AU - Agerholm-Larsen,L, AU - Bell,M L, AU - Grunwald,G K, AU - Astrup,A, PY - 2000/1/11/pubmed PY - 2001/5/5/medline PY - 2000/1/11/entrez SP - 856 EP - 60 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 54 IS - 11 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Certain fermented dairy milk products may have beneficial effects on plasma cholesterol levels. However, a number of studies have produced conflicting results as to whether dietary supplementation by a probiotic dairy product containing the bacteria culture Causido(R) reduces plasma cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of intervention studies to evaluate the effect of the Causido(R) culture on plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. THE PROBIOTIC MILK PRODUCT: The yoghurt product Gaio(R) is fermented with Causido(R), composed of one strain of Enterococcus faecium (human species) with the proposed cholesterol-lowering effect, and two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus. STUDY INCLUSION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Six studies were identified from a literature search and from the yoghurt producer. All studies met the inclusion criteria. Summary data for plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were extracted from the original publications or by personal request to the authors. Data from 4-8 weeks of treatment duration was used. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We performed a traditional meta-analysis where mean differences between intervention and control of the pre-post changes in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were calculated, as well as 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: In the six studies included in the meta-analysis, the Gaio(R) interventions produced changes in total cholesterol above those of the control groups ranging from -0.02 to -1.02 mmol/l and in LDL-cholesterol ranging from -0.02 to -1.15 mmol/l. After inclusion of an open-label study, the meta-analysis of the double-blind studies showed that Gaio(R) as compared to the control group changed total cholesterol by -0.22 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.35 to -0.08, P<0.01) and LDL-cholesterol by -0.20 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.33 to -0.06, P<0.005). The outcome was essentially the same if all studies were included. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis of controlled short-term intervention studies shows that the fermented yoghurt product produced a 4% decrease in total cholesterol and a 5% decrease in LDL-cholesterol when the open-label study is excluded. To demonstrate sustained effects on blood lipids, long-term studies are required. SPONSORSHIP: MD Foods A/S, Denmark. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11114681/The_effect_of_a_probiotic_milk_product_on_plasma_cholesterol:_a_meta_analysis_of_short_term_intervention_studies_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/cholesterollevelswhatyouneedtoknow.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -