Pharmacological investigation of mitochondrial ca(2+) transport in central neurons: studies with CGP-37157, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger.Cell Calcium. 2000 Nov-Dec; 28(5-6):317-27.CC
Mitochondria buffer large changes in [Ca(2+)](i)following an excitotoxic glutamate stimulus. Mitochondrial sequestration of [Ca(2+)](i)can beneficially stimulate oxidative metabolism and ATP production. However, Ca(2+)overload may have deleterious effects on mitochondrial function and cell survival, particularly Ca(2+)-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the mitochondria. We recently demonstrated that the mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+)exchanger in neurons is selectively inhibited by CGP-37157, a benzothiazepine analogue of diltiazem. In the present series of experiments we investigated the effects of CGP-37157 on mitochondrial functions regulated by Ca(2+). Our data showed that 25 microM CGP-37157 quenches DCF fluorescence similar to 100 microM glutamate and this effect was enhanced when the two stimuli were applied together. CGP-37157 did not increase ROS generation and did not alter glutamate or 3mM hydrogen-peroxide-induced increases in ROS as measured by DHE fluorescence. CGP-37157 induces a slight decrease in intracellular pH, much less than that of glutamate. In addition, CGP-37157 does not enhance intracellular acidification induced by glutamate. Although it is possible that CGP-37157 can enhance mitochondrial respiration both by blocking Ca(2+)cycling and by elevating intramitochondrial Ca(2+), we did not observe any changes in ATP levels or toxicity either in the presence or absence of glutamate. Finally, mitochondrial Ca(2+)uptake during an excitotoxic glutamate stimulus was only slightly enhanced by inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+)efflux. Thus, although CGP-37157 alters mitochondrial Ca(2+)efflux in neurons, the inhibition of Na(+)-Ca(2+)exchange does not profoundly alter glutamate-mediated changes in mitochondrial function or mitochondrial Ca(2+)content.