Extracellular mechanism through the Edg family of receptors might be responsible for sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced regulation of DNA synthesis and migration of rat aortic smooth-muscle cells.Biochem J 2001; 353(Pt 1):139-146BJ
Exogenous sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, stimulated thymidine incorporation (DNA synthesis) and inhibited cell migration in rat aortic smooth-muscle cells (AoSMCs). Although exogenous sphingosine, a substrate of sphingosine kinase or a precursor of S1P, markedly induced the intracellular accumulation of S1P, the lipid failed to mimic the S1P-induced actions. In contrast, dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate (DHS1P), an S1P receptor agonist, duplicated these S1P actions even though DHS1P was approx. 20-50-fold less potent than S1P. The pharmacological properties of DHS1P for the S1P receptor subtypes Edg-1, Edg-3, Edg-5 and Edg-6 were compared in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were overexpressing the respective receptor. In these S1P-receptor-overexpressing cells, DHS1P was approx. 20-30-fold less potent than S1P for the displacement of [(3)H]S1P binding and inositol phosphate response in Edg-5-expressing CHO cells, as was the case for AoSMCs. However, it was slightly (not more than 3-fold) less potent than S1P in cells expressing Edg-1, Edg-3 or Edg-6. Of the above-mentioned four types of S1P receptor, Edg-5 was abundantly expressed in AoSMCs, as demonstrated by Northern blotting. These results suggest that the intracellular accumulation of S1P is not necessary for the S1P-induced Ca(2+) response, for the stimulation of DNA synthesis or for the inhibition of cell migration. Thus these S1P-induced actions might be mediated through extracellular (or cell-surface) S1P receptors in AoSMCs: Edg-5 might be a most important receptor subtype.