[Renal osteodystrophy (2): its treatment in renal insufficiency before dialysis].Nephrologie. 2000; 21(6):275-82.N
1. In the patient with renal insufficiency before dialysis, the phosphocalcic disorders appear insidiously. They are dominated by hyperparathyroidism which will be diagnosed on the initially yearly determination of plasma intact PTH as soon as creatinine clearance decreases below 60 ml/min, eventhough there is still no modification in plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphate. Its diagnosis should lead to initiate the therapeutic measures in order to prevent the irreversible thining of the corticals by endosteal resorption and later the occurrence of histological and radiological osteitis fibrosa favoring fractures. 2. Hyperparathyroidism prevention relies on two main measures: prevention of phosphate retention and hypocalcemia is implemented by progressive phosphate and protein restriction (from 1 g/kg/day when Ccr < 60 ml/min to 0.6 g/kg/day when Ccr < 20 ml/min) and administration of CaCO3 (1.5 g at lunch and dinner to better complex the phosphate) as soon as PTH is above normal; optimal vitamin D repeletion will be implemented by systematic supplementation of native vitamin D or 25OH vitamin D3 in order to bring P25OHD between 30-60 ng/ml (75-150 nmol/l) or more generally around the upper limit of the epidemiologic range of the laboratory; these measures should aim at maintaining plasma intact PTH in its optimal range variable with the degree of renal insufficiency: 0.5-1; 1-2.5 and 2-3 folds the upper limit of normal for creatinine clearance respectively at 60-30; 30-10 and < 10 ml/min. 3. Because of their hyperphosphatemic and hypercalcemic effect, 1 alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D derivatives will be regularly efficient and safe only when non-calcemic non-aluminic phosphate binder will be available and proven to be without side-effects. 4. Instrumental (surgical or by alcohol injection) parathyroidectomy should be considered when plasma intact PTH is > 5 to 7 times the upper limit of normal in the presence of hypercalcemia (> 2.60 mmol/l) and/or hyperphosphatemia (> 1.70 nmol/l) in spite of the above measures, the decision being reinforced by coexistence of bone radiologic abnormalities and metastatic calcifications. 5. Adynamic bone diseases are rare before hemodialysis in the absence of aluminum exposition by the drinking water or the aluminum-phosphate binders. In absence of aluminum it will be prevented by maintaining PTH in its optimal range. 6. Osteomalacia before hemodialysis is mainly due, in the absence of aluminum exposition, to vitamin D deficiency, hypocalcemia and acidosis. It is readily cured by physiological doses of native vitamin D or 25OH vitamin D3 bringing plasma 25 OHD above 16 ng/ml, in association with alkaline salts of calcium and if necessary of sodium bicarbonate.