Perioperative monitoring with the electroencephalogram and the bispectral index monitor.AANA J. 2000 Aug; 68(4):333-40.AJ
Recent clinical studies using the bispectral index monitor to predict movement, measure the level of consciousness, and reduce the cost of anesthesia have renewed interest in the use of a monitor to assess the effects of anesthetics on the brain. In 1937, Gibbs described electroencephalographic changes during the administration of general anesthetics. Artusio in 1954 used unprocessed electroencephalographic waveform analysis during an ether anesthetic to study the first stage of anesthesia. Some of the first automated electroencephalographic processors used power spectrum analysis for assessment of the patient's brain activity during surgery and anesthesia. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical perspective of the development and use of the processed electroencephalographic monitor. This article also describes studies of clinical usefulness of the bispectral index monitoring device in anesthesia practice today.