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Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphism is associated with attachment disorganization in infants.
Mol Psychiatry. 2000 Nov; 5(6):633-7.MP

Abstract

About 15% of one-year-old infants in non-clinical, low-risk and up to 80% in high-risk (eg maltreated) populations show extensive disorganized attachment behavior(1,2) in the Strange Situation Test.(3) It has also been reported that disorganization of early attachment is a major risk factor for the development of childhood behavior problems.(4) The collapse of organized attachment strategy has been explained primarily by inappropriate caregiving, but recently, the contribution of child factors such as neurological impairments and neonatal behavioral organization(6) has also been suggested. Here we report an association between the DRD4 III exon 48-bp repeat polymorphism and attachment disorganization. Attachment behavior of 90 infants was tested in the Strange Situation and they were independently genotyped for the number of the 48-bp repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 7-repeat allele was represented with a significantly higher frequency in infants classified as disorganized compared to non-disorganized infants: 12 of 17 (71%) vs 21 of 73 (29%) had at least one 7-repeat allele (chi2 = 8.66, df = 1, P < 0.005). The estimated relative risk for disorganized attachment among children carrying the 7-repeat allele was 4.15. We suggest that, in non-clinical, low-social-risk populations, having a 7-repeat allele predisposes infants to attachment disorganization.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Social Development Group, Institute of Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. szulakat@mtapi.huNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11126393

Citation

Lakatos, K, et al. "Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4) Gene Polymorphism Is Associated With Attachment Disorganization in Infants." Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 5, no. 6, 2000, pp. 633-7.
Lakatos K, Toth I, Nemoda Z, et al. Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphism is associated with attachment disorganization in infants. Mol Psychiatry. 2000;5(6):633-7.
Lakatos, K., Toth, I., Nemoda, Z., Ney, K., Sasvari-Szekely, M., & Gervai, J. (2000). Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphism is associated with attachment disorganization in infants. Molecular Psychiatry, 5(6), 633-7.
Lakatos K, et al. Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4) Gene Polymorphism Is Associated With Attachment Disorganization in Infants. Mol Psychiatry. 2000;5(6):633-7. PubMed PMID: 11126393.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphism is associated with attachment disorganization in infants. AU - Lakatos,K, AU - Toth,I, AU - Nemoda,Z, AU - Ney,K, AU - Sasvari-Szekely,M, AU - Gervai,J, PY - 2000/12/29/pubmed PY - 2001/3/3/medline PY - 2000/12/29/entrez SP - 633 EP - 7 JF - Molecular psychiatry JO - Mol. Psychiatry VL - 5 IS - 6 N2 - About 15% of one-year-old infants in non-clinical, low-risk and up to 80% in high-risk (eg maltreated) populations show extensive disorganized attachment behavior(1,2) in the Strange Situation Test.(3) It has also been reported that disorganization of early attachment is a major risk factor for the development of childhood behavior problems.(4) The collapse of organized attachment strategy has been explained primarily by inappropriate caregiving, but recently, the contribution of child factors such as neurological impairments and neonatal behavioral organization(6) has also been suggested. Here we report an association between the DRD4 III exon 48-bp repeat polymorphism and attachment disorganization. Attachment behavior of 90 infants was tested in the Strange Situation and they were independently genotyped for the number of the 48-bp repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 7-repeat allele was represented with a significantly higher frequency in infants classified as disorganized compared to non-disorganized infants: 12 of 17 (71%) vs 21 of 73 (29%) had at least one 7-repeat allele (chi2 = 8.66, df = 1, P < 0.005). The estimated relative risk for disorganized attachment among children carrying the 7-repeat allele was 4.15. We suggest that, in non-clinical, low-social-risk populations, having a 7-repeat allele predisposes infants to attachment disorganization. SN - 1359-4184 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11126393/Dopamine_D4_receptor__DRD4__gene_polymorphism_is_associated_with_attachment_disorganization_in_infants_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000773 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -