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Parkinson's disease as multifactorial oxidative neurodegeneration: implications for integrative management.
Altern Med Rev. 2000 Dec; 5(6):502-29.AM

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement pathology, severely afflicting dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) along with non-dopaminergic, extra-nigral projection bundles that control circuits for sensory, associative, premotor, and motor pathways. Clinical, experimental, microanatomic, and biochemical evidence suggests PD involves multifactorial, oxidative neurodegeneration, and that levodopa therapy adds to the oxidative burden. The SN is uniquely vulnerable to oxidative damage, having high content of oxidizable dopamine, neuromelanin, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and iron, and relatively low antioxidant complement with high metabolic rate. Oxidative phosphorylation abnormalities impair energetics in the SN mitochondria, also intensifying oxygen free radical generation. These pro-oxidative factors combine within the SN dopaminergic neurons to create extreme vulnerability to oxidative challenge. Epidemiologic studies and long-term tracking of victims of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine) poisoning, suggest oxidative stress compounded by exogenous toxins may trigger the neurodegenerative progression of PD. Rational, integrative management of PD requires: (1) dietary revision, especially to lower calories; (2) rebalancing of essential fatty acid intake away from pro-inflammatory and toward anti-inflammatory prostaglandins; (3) aggressive repletion of glutathione and other nutrient antioxidants and cofactors; (4) energy nutrients acetyl L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, NADH, and the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS), (5) chelation as necessary for heavy metals; and (6) liver P450 detoxification support.

Authors

No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11134975

Citation

Kidd, P M.. "Parkinson's Disease as Multifactorial Oxidative Neurodegeneration: Implications for Integrative Management." Alternative Medicine Review : a Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, vol. 5, no. 6, 2000, pp. 502-29.
Kidd PM. Parkinson's disease as multifactorial oxidative neurodegeneration: implications for integrative management. Altern Med Rev. 2000;5(6):502-29.
Kidd, P. M. (2000). Parkinson's disease as multifactorial oxidative neurodegeneration: implications for integrative management. Alternative Medicine Review : a Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, 5(6), 502-29.
Kidd PM. Parkinson's Disease as Multifactorial Oxidative Neurodegeneration: Implications for Integrative Management. Altern Med Rev. 2000;5(6):502-29. PubMed PMID: 11134975.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Parkinson's disease as multifactorial oxidative neurodegeneration: implications for integrative management. A1 - Kidd,P M, PY - 2001/1/3/pubmed PY - 2001/3/7/medline PY - 2001/1/3/entrez SP - 502 EP - 29 JF - Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic JO - Altern Med Rev VL - 5 IS - 6 N2 - Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement pathology, severely afflicting dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) along with non-dopaminergic, extra-nigral projection bundles that control circuits for sensory, associative, premotor, and motor pathways. Clinical, experimental, microanatomic, and biochemical evidence suggests PD involves multifactorial, oxidative neurodegeneration, and that levodopa therapy adds to the oxidative burden. The SN is uniquely vulnerable to oxidative damage, having high content of oxidizable dopamine, neuromelanin, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and iron, and relatively low antioxidant complement with high metabolic rate. Oxidative phosphorylation abnormalities impair energetics in the SN mitochondria, also intensifying oxygen free radical generation. These pro-oxidative factors combine within the SN dopaminergic neurons to create extreme vulnerability to oxidative challenge. Epidemiologic studies and long-term tracking of victims of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine) poisoning, suggest oxidative stress compounded by exogenous toxins may trigger the neurodegenerative progression of PD. Rational, integrative management of PD requires: (1) dietary revision, especially to lower calories; (2) rebalancing of essential fatty acid intake away from pro-inflammatory and toward anti-inflammatory prostaglandins; (3) aggressive repletion of glutathione and other nutrient antioxidants and cofactors; (4) energy nutrients acetyl L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, NADH, and the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS), (5) chelation as necessary for heavy metals; and (6) liver P450 detoxification support. SN - 1089-5159 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11134975/Parkinson's_disease_as_multifactorial_oxidative_neurodegeneration:_implications_for_integrative_management_ L2 - http://archive.foundationalmedicinereview.com/publications/5/6/502.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -