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Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The effect of dietary composition on blood pressure is a subject of public health importance. We studied the effect of different levels of dietary sodium, in conjunction with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is rich in vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy products, in persons with and in those without hypertension.

METHODS

A total of 412 participants were randomly assigned to eat either a control diet typical of intake in the United States or the DASH diet. Within the assigned diet, participants ate foods with high, intermediate, and low levels of sodium for 30 consecutive days each, in random order.

RESULTS

Reducing the sodium intake from the high to the intermediate level reduced the systolic blood pressure by 2.1 mm Hg (P<0.001) during the control diet and by 1.3 mm Hg (P=0.03) during the DASH diet. Reducing the sodium intake from the intermediate to the low level caused additional reductions of 4.6 mm Hg during the control diet (P<0.001) and 1.7 mm Hg during the DASH diet (P<0.01). The effects of sodium were observed in participants with and in those without hypertension, blacks and those of other races, and women and men. The DASH diet was associated with a significantly lower systolic blood pressure at each sodium level; and the difference was greater with high sodium levels than with low ones. As compared with the control diet with a high sodium level, the DASH diet with a low sodium level led to a mean systolic blood pressure that was 7.1 mm Hg lower in participants without hypertension, and 11.5 mm Hg lower in participants with hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS

The reduction of sodium intake to levels below the current recommendation of 100 mmol per day and the DASH diet both lower blood pressure substantially, with greater effects in combination than singly. Long-term health benefits will depend on the ability of people to make long-lasting dietary changes and the increased availability of lower-sodium foods.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. fsacks@hsph.harvard.edu

    , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    The New England journal of medicine 344:1 2001 Jan 04 pg 3-10

    MeSH

    Blood Pressure
    Continental Population Groups
    Cross-Over Studies
    Diet
    Diet, Sodium-Restricted
    Female
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Sex Factors
    Sodium, Dietary

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11136953

    Citation

    Sacks, F M., et al. "Effects On Blood Pressure of Reduced Dietary Sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 1, 2001, pp. 3-10.
    Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(1):3-10.
    Sacks, F. M., Svetkey, L. P., Vollmer, W. M., Appel, L. J., Bray, G. A., Harsha, D., ... Lin, P. H. (2001). Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344(1), pp. 3-10.
    Sacks FM, et al. Effects On Blood Pressure of Reduced Dietary Sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jan 4;344(1):3-10. PubMed PMID: 11136953.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. AU - Sacks,F M, AU - Svetkey,L P, AU - Vollmer,W M, AU - Appel,L J, AU - Bray,G A, AU - Harsha,D, AU - Obarzanek,E, AU - Conlin,P R, AU - Miller,E R,3rd AU - Simons-Morton,D G, AU - Karanja,N, AU - Lin,P H, AU - ,, PY - 2001/1/4/pubmed PY - 2001/3/14/medline PY - 2001/1/4/entrez SP - 3 EP - 10 JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N. Engl. J. Med. VL - 344 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary composition on blood pressure is a subject of public health importance. We studied the effect of different levels of dietary sodium, in conjunction with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is rich in vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy products, in persons with and in those without hypertension. METHODS: A total of 412 participants were randomly assigned to eat either a control diet typical of intake in the United States or the DASH diet. Within the assigned diet, participants ate foods with high, intermediate, and low levels of sodium for 30 consecutive days each, in random order. RESULTS: Reducing the sodium intake from the high to the intermediate level reduced the systolic blood pressure by 2.1 mm Hg (P<0.001) during the control diet and by 1.3 mm Hg (P=0.03) during the DASH diet. Reducing the sodium intake from the intermediate to the low level caused additional reductions of 4.6 mm Hg during the control diet (P<0.001) and 1.7 mm Hg during the DASH diet (P<0.01). The effects of sodium were observed in participants with and in those without hypertension, blacks and those of other races, and women and men. The DASH diet was associated with a significantly lower systolic blood pressure at each sodium level; and the difference was greater with high sodium levels than with low ones. As compared with the control diet with a high sodium level, the DASH diet with a low sodium level led to a mean systolic blood pressure that was 7.1 mm Hg lower in participants without hypertension, and 11.5 mm Hg lower in participants with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of sodium intake to levels below the current recommendation of 100 mmol per day and the DASH diet both lower blood pressure substantially, with greater effects in combination than singly. Long-term health benefits will depend on the ability of people to make long-lasting dietary changes and the increased availability of lower-sodium foods. SN - 0028-4793 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11136953/full_citation L2 - https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJM200101043440101?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -