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Jumping improves hip and lumbar spine bone mass in prepubescent children: a randomized controlled trial.
J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16(1):148-56JB

Abstract

Physical activity during childhood is advocated as one strategy for enhancing peak bone mass (bone mineral content [BMC]) as a means to reduce osteoporosis-related fractures. Thus, we investigated the effects of high-intensity jumping on hip and lumbar spine bone mass in children. Eighty-nine prepubescent children between the ages of 5.9 and 9.8 years were randomized into a jumping (n = 25 boys and n = 20 girls) or control group (n = 26 boys and n = 18 girls). Both groups participated in the 7-month exercise intervention during the school day three times per week. The jumping group performed 100, two-footed jumps off 61-cm boxes each session, while the control group performed nonimpact stretching exercises. BMC (g), bone area (BA; cm2), and bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) of the left proximal femoral neck and lumbar spine (L1-L4) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Hologic QDR/4500-A). Peak ground reaction forces were calculated across 100, two-footed jumps from a 61-cm box. In addition, anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, and body fat), physical activity, and dietary calcium intake were assessed. At baseline there were no differences between groups for anthropometric characteristics, dietary calcium intake, or bone variables. After 7 months, jumpers and controls had similar increases in height, weight, and body fat. Using repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA; covariates, initial age and bone values, and changes in height and weight) for BMC, the primary outcome variable, jumpers had significantly greater 7-month changes at the femoral neck and lumbar spine than controls (4.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In repeated measures ANCOVA of secondary outcomes (BMD and BA), BMD at the lumbar spine was significantly greater in jumpers than in controls (2.0%) and approached statistical significance at the femoral neck (1.4%; p = 0.085). For BA, jumpers had significantly greater increases at the femoral neck area than controls (2.9%) but were not different at the spine. Our data indicate that jumping at ground reaction forces of eight times body weight is a safe, effective, and simple method of improving bone mass at the hip and spine in children. This program could be easily incorporated into physical education classes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Bone Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331-3303, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11149479

Citation

Fuchs, R K., et al. "Jumping Improves Hip and Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Prepubescent Children: a Randomized Controlled Trial." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 16, no. 1, 2001, pp. 148-56.
Fuchs RK, Bauer JJ, Snow CM. Jumping improves hip and lumbar spine bone mass in prepubescent children: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16(1):148-56.
Fuchs, R. K., Bauer, J. J., & Snow, C. M. (2001). Jumping improves hip and lumbar spine bone mass in prepubescent children: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 16(1), pp. 148-56.
Fuchs RK, Bauer JJ, Snow CM. Jumping Improves Hip and Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Prepubescent Children: a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16(1):148-56. PubMed PMID: 11149479.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Jumping improves hip and lumbar spine bone mass in prepubescent children: a randomized controlled trial. AU - Fuchs,R K, AU - Bauer,J J, AU - Snow,C M, PY - 2001/1/10/pubmed PY - 2001/3/7/medline PY - 2001/1/10/entrez SP - 148 EP - 56 JF - Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research JO - J. Bone Miner. Res. VL - 16 IS - 1 N2 - Physical activity during childhood is advocated as one strategy for enhancing peak bone mass (bone mineral content [BMC]) as a means to reduce osteoporosis-related fractures. Thus, we investigated the effects of high-intensity jumping on hip and lumbar spine bone mass in children. Eighty-nine prepubescent children between the ages of 5.9 and 9.8 years were randomized into a jumping (n = 25 boys and n = 20 girls) or control group (n = 26 boys and n = 18 girls). Both groups participated in the 7-month exercise intervention during the school day three times per week. The jumping group performed 100, two-footed jumps off 61-cm boxes each session, while the control group performed nonimpact stretching exercises. BMC (g), bone area (BA; cm2), and bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) of the left proximal femoral neck and lumbar spine (L1-L4) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Hologic QDR/4500-A). Peak ground reaction forces were calculated across 100, two-footed jumps from a 61-cm box. In addition, anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, and body fat), physical activity, and dietary calcium intake were assessed. At baseline there were no differences between groups for anthropometric characteristics, dietary calcium intake, or bone variables. After 7 months, jumpers and controls had similar increases in height, weight, and body fat. Using repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA; covariates, initial age and bone values, and changes in height and weight) for BMC, the primary outcome variable, jumpers had significantly greater 7-month changes at the femoral neck and lumbar spine than controls (4.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In repeated measures ANCOVA of secondary outcomes (BMD and BA), BMD at the lumbar spine was significantly greater in jumpers than in controls (2.0%) and approached statistical significance at the femoral neck (1.4%; p = 0.085). For BA, jumpers had significantly greater increases at the femoral neck area than controls (2.9%) but were not different at the spine. Our data indicate that jumping at ground reaction forces of eight times body weight is a safe, effective, and simple method of improving bone mass at the hip and spine in children. This program could be easily incorporated into physical education classes. SN - 0884-0431 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11149479/Jumping_improves_hip_and_lumbar_spine_bone_mass_in_prepubescent_children:_a_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.1.148 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -