Anatomic double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring tendons.Arthroscopy. 2001 Jan; 17(1):88-97.A
Recent biomechanical studies have shown that an anatomic double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction is superior in restoring normal knee laxity compared with the conventional single-bundle isometric reconstruction. We describe a modification of an endoscopic PCL reconstruction technique using a double-bundle Y-shaped hamstring tendon graft. A double- or triple-bundle semitendinosus-gracilis tendon graft is used and directly fixed with soft threaded biodegradable interference screws. In the medial femoral condyle, 2 femoral tunnels are created inside-out through a low anterolateral arthroscopic portal. First, in 80 degrees of flexion, the double-stranded gracilis graft is fixed with an interference screw inside the lower femoral socket, representing the insertion site of the posteromedial bundle. In full extension the combined semitendinosus-gracilis graft is pretensioned and fixed inside the posterior aspect of the single tibial tunnel. The double- or triple-stranded semitendinosus tendon is inserted in the higher femoral tunnel, presenting the insertion site of the anterolateral bundle. Finally, pretension is applied to the semitendinosus bundle in 70 degrees of flexion and a third screw is inserted. Using this technique, the stronger semitendinosus part of the double-bundle graft, which mimics the anterolateral bundle of the PCL, is fixed in flexion, whereas the smaller gracilis tendon part (posteromedial bundle) is fixed in full extension. Thus, a fully arthroscopic anatomic PCL reconstruction technique is available that may better restore normal knee kinematics as compared to the single-stranded isometric reconstruction.