Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Taxonomy and virulence of oral spirochetes.
Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2000 Feb; 15(1):1-9.OM

Abstract

All oral spirochetes are classified in the genus Treponema. This genus is in the family Spirochaetaceae as in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Other generic members of the family include Spirochaeta, Cristispira and Borrelia. This conventional classification is in accord with phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes based on 16S rRNA cataloguing. The oral spirochetes fall naturally within the grouping of Treponema. Only four species of Treponema have been cultivated and maintained reliably: Treponema denticola, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema socranskii and Treponema vincentii. These species have valid names according to the rules of nomenclature except for Treponema vincentii, which only has had effective publication. The virulence factors of the oral spirochetes updated in this mini-review have been discussed within the following broad confines: adherence, cytotoxic effects, iron sequestration and locomotion. T. denticola has been shown to attach to human gingival fibroblasts, basement membrane proteins, as well as other substrates by specific attachment mechanisms. The binding of the spirochete to human gingival fibroblasts resulted in cytotoxicity and cell death due to enzymes and other proteins. Binding of the spirochete to erythrocytes was accompanied by agglutination and lysis. Hemolysis releases hemin, which is sequestered by an outer membrane sheath receptor protein of the spirochete. The ability to locomote through viscous environments enables spirochetes to migrate within gingival crevicular fluid and to penetrate sulcular epithelial linings and gingival connective tissue. The virulence factors of the oral spirochetes proven in vitro underscore the important role they play in the periodontal disease process. This role has been evaluated in vivo by use of a murine model.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, 3640 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11155157

Citation

Chan, E C., and R McLaughlin. "Taxonomy and Virulence of Oral Spirochetes." Oral Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 15, no. 1, 2000, pp. 1-9.
Chan EC, McLaughlin R. Taxonomy and virulence of oral spirochetes. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2000;15(1):1-9.
Chan, E. C., & McLaughlin, R. (2000). Taxonomy and virulence of oral spirochetes. Oral Microbiology and Immunology, 15(1), 1-9.
Chan EC, McLaughlin R. Taxonomy and Virulence of Oral Spirochetes. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2000;15(1):1-9. PubMed PMID: 11155157.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Taxonomy and virulence of oral spirochetes. AU - Chan,E C, AU - McLaughlin,R, PY - 2001/1/13/pubmed PY - 2001/3/3/medline PY - 2001/1/13/entrez SP - 1 EP - 9 JF - Oral microbiology and immunology JO - Oral Microbiol. Immunol. VL - 15 IS - 1 N2 - All oral spirochetes are classified in the genus Treponema. This genus is in the family Spirochaetaceae as in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Other generic members of the family include Spirochaeta, Cristispira and Borrelia. This conventional classification is in accord with phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes based on 16S rRNA cataloguing. The oral spirochetes fall naturally within the grouping of Treponema. Only four species of Treponema have been cultivated and maintained reliably: Treponema denticola, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema socranskii and Treponema vincentii. These species have valid names according to the rules of nomenclature except for Treponema vincentii, which only has had effective publication. The virulence factors of the oral spirochetes updated in this mini-review have been discussed within the following broad confines: adherence, cytotoxic effects, iron sequestration and locomotion. T. denticola has been shown to attach to human gingival fibroblasts, basement membrane proteins, as well as other substrates by specific attachment mechanisms. The binding of the spirochete to human gingival fibroblasts resulted in cytotoxicity and cell death due to enzymes and other proteins. Binding of the spirochete to erythrocytes was accompanied by agglutination and lysis. Hemolysis releases hemin, which is sequestered by an outer membrane sheath receptor protein of the spirochete. The ability to locomote through viscous environments enables spirochetes to migrate within gingival crevicular fluid and to penetrate sulcular epithelial linings and gingival connective tissue. The virulence factors of the oral spirochetes proven in vitro underscore the important role they play in the periodontal disease process. This role has been evaluated in vivo by use of a murine model. SN - 0902-0055 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11155157/Taxonomy_and_virulence_of_oral_spirochetes_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0902-0055&date=2000&volume=15&issue=1&spage=1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -