Associations between dietary intake and Ki-ras mutations in colon tumors: a population-based study.Cancer Res. 2000 Dec 15; 60(24):6935-41.CR
Ki-ras mutations are thought to be early events in the carcinogenic process leading to colon tumors. Dietary factors associated with colon cancer may be associated with these mutations. Data from a population-based, multicenter, case-control study of colon cancer were used to determine whether dietary factors are associated with Ki-ras mutations. Ki-ras mutations were detected by direct sequencing of codons 12 and 13 of the Ki-ras gene on exon 1 from DNA obtained from archival tissue. Ki-ras data were available for 1428 cases with valid interview data; data from 2410 controls were available for comparison with cases positive and negative for Ki-ras mutations. Mutations in the Ki-ras gene were detected in 32% of tumors. Of these mutations, 32.8% were G-->A transitions in the second base of codon 12 (2G-->A). Other than cruciferous vegetables, there were no nutrients or foods associated specifically with Ki-ras mutations [odds ratio (OR) for high intake relative to low intake, 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-1.0]. However, evaluation of specific types of Ki-ras mutations revealed that for each of the most common types of mutation, dietary associations existed. Dietary factors involved in DNA methylation pathways were associated with 2G-->A mutations. Comparison of individuals with and without Ki-ras mutations revealed that individuals with low levels of dietary folate (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.3), vitamin B6 (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0), vitamin B12 (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.1), and high levels of alcohol (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.1) were less likely to have a 2G-->A mutation. Individuals with high levels of dietary carbohydrate (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.9-4.4) and a high glycemic index (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.8-4.6) were more likely to have a G-->A transition mutation in the second base of codon 13 (5G-->A). Individuals with high levels of dietary fat (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.2), saturated fat (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8-3.5), and monounsaturated fat (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.7) were more likely to harbor a 2G-->T mutation. Low levels of cruciferous vegetable intake and high levels of processed meat intake also were associated with fewer 5G-->A, as reflected by the ORs (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0 and OR, 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.8, respectively). These data suggest that diet may be involved in disease pathways represented by specific Ki-ras mutations. However, given the limited information currently available on associations between specific genetic mutations in colon tumors and diet, these findings also should be viewed as hypothesis generating.