Risk factors for uterine leiomyoma: a practice-based case-control study. II. Atherogenic risk factors and potential sources of uterine irritation.Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153(1):11-9AJ
In this case-control study, the authors analyzed associations of uterine leiomyoma with atherogenic risk factors and potential sources of uterine irritation. The study included 318 case women with uterine leiomyoma that was first confirmed between 1990 and 1993 in the Baltimore, Maryland, area and 394 controls selected from women visiting the same gynecologists' offices for routine reasons. Telephone interviews were conducted with 77.8% of eligible cases and 78.0% of eligible controls. Compared with participants with no hypertension history, increased risks were observed among participants with any history of hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 2.8), hypertension requiring medication (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.1), hypertension diagnosed at ages less than 35 years (for hypertension requiring medication, OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 7.6), and hypertension of 5 or more years' duration (for hypertension requiring medication, OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.2, 8.2). Estimates of associations with diabetes history were very imprecise but followed similar patterns. Adjusted associations were observed with pelvic inflammatory disease (three or more episodes vs. none: OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 15.9), chlamydial infection (history vs. no history: OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 0.8, 13.7), and use of an intrauterine device when it caused infectious complications (use vs. no use: OR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.8, 16.3). Risk of uterine leiomyoma was also associated in a graded fashion with frequency of perineal talc use (daily use vs. no use: OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.1). The authors conclude that nonhormonal factors may influence risk of uterine leiomyoma.