Color stability of commercial anthocyanin-based extracts in relation to the phenolic composition. Protective effects by intra- and intermolecular copigmentation.J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jan; 49(1):170-6.JA
Anthocyanin extracts are increasingly used as food ingredients. A current challenge is to maintain their color properties. The stability of some colorants has been studied in sugar and non-sugar drink models at three pH values (3, 4, and 5) under thermal and light conditions simulating rapid food aging. At a given pH, color stability mainly depends on the structures of anthocyanins and of colorless phenolic compounds. Colorants rich in acylated anthocyanins (purple carrot, red radish, and red cabbage) display great stability due to intramolecular copigmentation. The protection of red chromophore is higher for diacylated anthocyanins in red radish and red cabbage. For colorants without acylated anthocyanins (grape-marc, elderberry, black currant, and chokeberry), intermolecular copigmentation plays a key role in color protection. Colorants rich in flavonols and with the highest copigment/pigment ratio show a remarkable stability. By contrast, catechins appear to have a negative effect on red colorants, quickly turning yellowish in drink models. This effect is more pronounced when the pH is increased. Finally, color does not seem to be greatly influenced by the addition of sugar.